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are highly susceptible to infection 6 presumably because of naïve and immature immune responses of foals 7 – 11 and interference of maternal antibodies (Abs). 12 , 13 Despite their naïve and immature immunity, neonatal foals can mount effective

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

History An 18-kg neonatal Angus-Hereford crossbreed heifer calf was presented to the Auburn University Large Animal Teaching Hospital 3 hours after unassisted calving that occurred without dystocia. The calf was estimated to be approximately 1

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective—

To develop an economic tool that can be used to help cattle producers evaluate benefits of neonatal health programs.

Design—

Computer simulation of a multiple-year spreadsheet model, using economic and production variables.

Sample Population—

Records for a university research farm beef herd.

Procedure—

Data from the university research farm beef herd for each year from 1990 to 1995 were evaluated to determine economic benefits for the cowcalf enterprise that would result from a decrease in morbidity and mortality. A baseline economic evaluation of returns to variable costs was performed, using actual production and marketing information. Actual economic performance was contrasted with a projected simulation in which morbidity and mortality were decreased. Sensitivity analysis for the simulation model assessment of a neonatal health program was also performed.

Results—

Mean-per-cow increase in net income for the herd during the 6-year period for morbidity and mortality reductions of 20, 40, and 60% was $7.44, $14.93, and $22.42, respectively. Sensitivity analysis revealed that net income per cow was not sensitive to errors in projections of morbidity and mortality.

Clinical Implications—

Identifying potential economic benefits for implementing a neonatal health plan and quantifying the costs to implement each component of the plan can be used by veterinarians and their clients when formulating a proactive strategy to provide the greatest potential for economic reward. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;213:810-816)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

report described the successful use of oral mucosal sutures as the sole means of stabilizing rostral mandibular fractures in 3 neonatal calves. For the 3 calves with open rostral mandibular fractures described in the present report, surgical debridement

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To characterize hypernatremia in neonatal elk calves, including clinical signs, incidence, physical examination findings, and possible causes.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—26 neonatal elk calves were examined; 4 calves were evaluated twice, for a total of 30 examinations.

Procedure—Medical records were reviewed for signalment, history, physical examination findings, results of diagnostic tests, and response to treatment. Hypernatremia was defined as serum sodium concentration > 153 mEq/L.

Results—Hypernatremia was diagnosed in 14 calves and was significantly associated with diarrhea, high WBC count, high anion gap, and high serum concentrations of albumin, chloride, creatinine, and urea. Hypernatremia was not significantly associated with survival, but high serum albumin concentration and rectal temperature were significantly associated with survival of calves. Animals given antibiotics and electrolyte solutions orally prior to evaluation were significantly more likely to die than those untreated. Dehydration was a common reason for evaluation but was not significantly associated with survival.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Hypernatremia was significantly associated with diarrhea. Treatment of diarrheic elk calves is often the same as that used in bovine calves with diarrhea; however, bovine calves are commonly hypo- or normonatremic. Our experience suggests that treatment protocols used in bovine calves are unsatisfactory for elk calves. The rate at which serum sodium concentration is reduced should be < 1.7 mEq Na/L/h to avoid development of neurologic signs associated with iatrogenically induced cerebral edema. ( J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:68–70)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Serum interleukin-6 (il-6) concentration was measured in 11 colostrum-fed (cf) and 8 colostrum-deprived (cd) 2- to 3-day-old foals after foals were infused with lipopolysaccharide (lps; Escherichia coli O55:B5 endotoxin, 0.5 µ.g/kg of body weight in sterile saline [0.9% NaCl] solution). Four cf and 2 cd foals were given saline solution alone. Serum il-6 concentration was estimated by use of an in vitro proliferative bioassay, using the IL-6 dependent B.13.29 clone 9 cells. Interleukin-6 concentration increased in all lps-infused foals, and geometric mean serum il- 6 concentration was significantly higher in cf than cd foals 30 and 90 minutes after infusion. Both lps- infused groups had multiple spikes of mean il-6 concentration that peaked at 120 minutes in cf foals and 150 minutes in cd foals. Results indicated that il-6 is produced in neonatal foals in response to lps infusion. Furthermore, colostrum deprivation resulted in longer times to peak mean serum il-6 concentration and tended to reduce serum il-6 concentration in neonatal foals.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

when coadministering 2 MLV vaccines that replicate at the same or adjacent mucosal sites. 8 Intranasal (IN) vaccination has been adopted in neonatal calves as an effective strategy to circumvent vaccine interference by maternal antibodies and target

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Historical, physical, and clinicopathologic findings in 25 septicemic calves were examined to further characterize the clinical features of naturally induced bovine neonatal septicemia. Owners often reported single organ disease, but physical examination revealed multiple organ disease in more than half the calves. A third of the calves were admitted as representative of a herd problem. Laboratory findings were variable, but commonly included changes in the differential WBC count and plasma fibrinogen concentration. Low serum immunoglobulin concentrations were found in approximately half the calves.

Escherichia coli was the most frequently isolated organism, but gram-positive infections were found in 10%, and polymicrobial infections in 28%, of the calves. Previous antimicrobial administration did not appear to affect culture yield. At necropsy, lesions were seen in multiple organs in most calves. The respiratory and gastrointestinal systems were most commonly affected. Few of the calves had umbilical infections. The survival rate was poor (< 12%).

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To determine normal acid-base status of the CSF and to compare it with changes during acute hypercapnia in equine neonates.

Animals

10 clinically normal foals between 1 and 12 days old.

Procedure

CSF and arterial and venous blood samples were collected every 15 minutes during 45 minutes of normocapnia and 90 minutes of hypercapnia in isoflurane-anesthetized foals. CSF samples were collected via a subarachnoid catheter placed in the atlanto-occipital space.

Results

Comparison of blood and CSF gases during normocapnia indicated that CSF was significantly more acidic than blood. The lower pH was attributable to higher CO2 and lower bicarbonate concentrations than those in blood. During hypercapnia, CSF CO2 increased and pH decreased parallel to changes in blood, but changes were not as great as similar changes in venous blood, indicating that some degree of buffering occurs in the CSF of foals.

Conclusions

Normal CSF acid-base status in equine neonates is similar to that in other domestic species. The blood-brain and blood-CSF interfaces in neonates allow rapid diffusion of CO2, but allow only slow diffusion of bicarbonate. Equine neonates are capable of buffering respiratory-induced acid-base changes in the CSF, but the buffering capacity is less than that of the vascular compartment.

Clinical Relevance

Neonatal foals may develop severe respiratory compromise, resulting in hypoxemia and hypercapnia. Because the ability of the CSF to buffer acid-base changes in neonates is reduced, hypercapnia may contribute to the CNS abnormalities that often develop in sick neonates. Thus, normal blood gas values should be maintained in diseased equine neonates. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:1483-1487)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective—

To evaluate use of fluprostenol, dexamethasone, and oxytocin for induction of parturition in alpacas, and to determine viability of the newborn crias.

Design—

Prospective, randomized, controlled trial.

Animals—

36 pregnant alpacas within 10 days of parturition.

Procedure—

Animals were randomly assigned to treatment groups. Plasma progesterone and plasma and urine estrone sulfate concentrations were measured for 5 days after treatment. Clinical signs of the neonates were determined.

Results—

Time between treatment and parturition was significantly shorter for animals that received fluprostenol than for animals in any other group. The highest dose of dexamethasone (0.5 mg) caused fetal death. None of the other treatments induced early parturition. Time between birth and first suckling, body weight, rectal temperature, pulse rate, and respiratory rate at birth and serum IgG concentration 24 hours after birth were not different between crias born after fluprostenol treatment and crias born to control alpacas.

Clinical Implications—

Fluprostenol was effective at inducing parturition in these alpacas, but dexamethasone and oxytocin were not. crias born after fluprostenol treatment were similar to crias born to control alpacas. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;209:1760–1762)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association