Search Results

You are looking at 41 - 50 of 136 items for :

  • "nasal swab" x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effect of intranasal exposure to live leukotoxin (LktA)-deficient Mannheimia haemolytica (MH) at the time of feedyard arrival on nasopharyngeal colonization by wildtype MH in calves.

Animals—200 calves.

Procedure—Calves from Arkansas (AR calves; n = 100; mean body weight, 205 kg) were purchased from an order buyer barn. Calves from New Mexico (NM calves; n = 100; mean body weight, 188 kg) were obtained from a single ranch. Calves were transported to a feedyard, where half of each group was exposed intranasally with LktA-deficient MH at the time of arrival. Calves were observed daily for respiratory tract disease (RTD), and nasal swab specimens were collected periodically to determine nasopharyngeal colonization status with MH. Serum samples were assayed for antibodies to MH.

Results—15 AR calves had nasopharyngeal colonization by wild-type MH at the order buyer barn, whereas none of the NM calves had nasopharyngeal colonization. Intranasal exposure to LktA-deficient MH elicited an increase in serum antibody titers against MH in NM calves, but titers were less in NM calves treated for RTD. Exposure of NM calves to LktA-deficient MH offered protection from nasopharyngeal colonization by wild-type MH.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Exposure of calves to LktA-deficient MH elicited an increase in serum antibody titers against MH and decreased colonization of the nasopharynx by wild-type MH. Earlier exposure would likely allow an immune response to develop before transportation and offer protection from nasopharyngeal colonization and pneumonia caused by wild-type MH. ( Am J Vet Res 2003;64:580–585)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether cattle persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) that lack virus detectable in serum by use of the immunoperoxidase microtiter assay (IPMA) can transmit the virus to susceptible herdmates and determine prevalence of these cattle.

Design—Clinical trial and serologic survey.

Sample Population—2 cattle and 1,952 blood samples.

Procedure—A persistently infected cow in which virus could not be detected in serum was housed with a BVDV-seronegative steer. Blood and nasal swab specimens were tested via virus isolation and serum virus neutralization. Parallel WBC preparations and sera from blood samples of 1,952 adult cows were screened for BVDV by use of IPMA.

Results—The steer seroconverted to BVDV within 4 weeks of contact with the cow. Virus was detected in sera and WBC of 5 adult cows that were verified as persistently infected by retest 3 weeks later. Cattle persistently infected with BVDV in which virus could not be detected in both serum and WBC by use of IPMA were not found.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Cattle persistently infected with BVDV in which virus cannot be detected in serum by use of IPMA may serve as virus reservoirs for infecting susceptible cattle. Persistent infection was detected at a prevalence of 0.26%. Screening adult cattle by use of IPMA on serum samples appears to be a reliable means of detecting persistent infection with BVDV. Prevalence of cattle persistently infected with BVDV that have negative results of IPMA on serum is extremely low. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;219:629–631)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate a portable real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay designed to detect all 7 viral serotypes of footand- mouth disease virus (FMDV).

Design—Laboratory and animal studies.

Study Population—Viruses grown in tissue culture and animals experimentally infected with FMDV.

Procedure—1 steer, pig, and sheep were infected with serotype O FMDV. Twenty-four hours later, animals were placed in separate rooms that contained 4 FMDV-free, healthy animals of the same species. Oral and nasal swab specimens, oropharyngeal specimens obtained with a probang, and blood samples were obtained at frequent intervals, and animals were observed for fever and clinical signs of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). Samples from animals and tissue cultures were assayed for infectious virus and viral RNA.

Results—The assay detected viral RNA representing all 7 FMDV serotypes grown in tissue culture but did not amplify a panel of selected viruses that included those that cause vesicular diseases similar to FMD; thus, the assay had a specificity of 100%, depending on the panel selected. The assay also met or exceeded sensitivity of viral culture on samples from experimentally infected animals. In many instances, the assay detected viral RNA in the mouth and nose 24 to 96 hours before the onset of clinical disease.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The assay reagents are produced in a vitrified form, which permits storage and transportation at ambient temperatures. The test can be performed in 2 hours or less on a portable instrument, thus providing a rapid, portable, sensitive, and specific method for detection of FMDV. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:1636–1642)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1), bovine viral diarrhea (BVDV) virus 1 (BVDV1), or BVDV 2 (BVDV2) were shed after parenteral administration of a multivalent modified-live virus vaccine.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—28 healthy beef calves and 4 healthy pregnant beef cows.

Procedure—A commercially available modified-live virus multivalent vaccine was administered to steers and heifers (n = 18) that were seronegative to BHV1, BVDV1, and BVDV2. Four seronegative pregnant control cows were held in contact with the vaccinated calves for 103 days. Unvaccinated calves (n = 10) were held as controls in a separate double-fenced pen. Seroconversion was monitored by determining serum neutralization titers after vaccination. Viral shedding and viremia were assessed via analysis of nasal swab specimens and blood by use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcriptase-PCR assays and virus isolation.

Results—A transient BVDV1 viremia was detected in most vaccinated calves 3 to 10 days after vaccination. All vaccinated calves seroconverted to BVDV1 and BVDV2. Seventeen of 18 vaccinated calves seroconverted to BHV1. Viral shedding was not detected in the vaccinated calves. All control cattle remained seronegative to BHV1, BVDV1, and BVDV2 throughout the study.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Shedding of BHV1, BVDV1, and BVDV2 after vaccination was either nonexistent or undetected and did not result in transmission of BHV1, BVDV1, or BVDV2 vaccine viruses to pregnant contact control cows. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;222:1399–1403)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the prevalence of nasal colonization with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in horses and horse personnel.

Design—Prospective prevalence study.

Sample Population—972 horses and 107 personnel from equine farms in Ontario, Canada and New York state.

Procedure—Nasal swab specimens were collected from horses and humans on farms with (targeted surveillance) and without (nontargeted surveillance) a history of MRSA colonization or infection in horses during the preceding year. Selective culture for MRSA was performed. Isolates were typed via pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and antibiograms were determined.

Results—MRSA was isolated from 46 of 972 (4.7%) horses (0/581 via nontargeted surveillance and 46/391 [12%] via targeted surveillance). Similarly, MRSA was isolated from 14 of 107 (13%) humans (2/41 [5%] from nontargeted surveillance and 12/66 [18%] from targeted surveillance). All isolates were subtypes of Canadian epidemic MRSA-5, an uncommon strain in humans. All isolates were resistant to at least 1 antimicrobial class in addition to β-lactams. On all farms with colonized horses, at least 1 human was colonized with an indistinguishable subtype. For horses, residing on a farm that housed > 20 horses was the only factor significantly associated with MRSA colonization. For humans, regular contact with > 20 horses was the only identified risk factor.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results confirm a reservoir of colonized horses on a variety of farms in Ontario and New York and provide evidence that 1 MRSA strain is predominantly involved in MRSA colonization in horses and humans that work with horses. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:580–583)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To monitor ovine herpesvirus type 2 (OvHV-2) infection status and the association between OvHV-2 infection and development of clinical signs of malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) in cattle.

Design—Longitudinal study.

Animals—30 mature adult cows and 18 cattle submitted for necropsy.

Procedure—Blood and milk samples were collected at monthly intervals from 30 adult cows for 20 consecutive months. Nasal and ocular swab specimens were also collected during months 9 through 20. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for detection of OvHV-2 was performed on blood, milk, nasal swab, and ocular swab specimens. Competitive inhibition ELISA (CI-ELISA) for detection of antibodies against MCF viruses was performed on serum samples obtained prior to study initiation and monthly during the last 12 months. Tissues obtained from herdmates without clinical signs of MCF that were submitted for necropsy were analyzed for OvHV-2 DNA via PCR assay for possible sites of latency.

Results—Initially, 8 of 30 cows had positive CI-ELISA results. Seroconversion was detected in 4 cows. Ovine herpesvirus type 2 DNA was intermittently detected in blood, milk, nasal secretions, or ocular secretions from 17 of 30 cows. Twenty-one cows had positive CI-ELISA or PCR assay results. No cattle in the study developed clinical signs of MCF. Results of PCR assays performed on tissue samples from 2 of 18 animals submitted for necropsy were positive for OvHV-2.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—OvHV-2 infection can occur in cattle without concurrent development of clinical MCF. Ovine herpesvirus type 2 DNA was detected intermittently, suggesting fluctuating viral DNA loads or reinfection in subclinical cattle. A definitive site of latency was not identified from tissues obtained during necropsy. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:606–611)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To develop a model of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) infection that induces severe disease similar to that seen in some cattle with naturally acquired BRSV infection.

Animals

25 male Holstein calves, 8 to 16 weeks old.

Procedure

17 calves were given a low-passage field isolate of BRSV by aerosolization; 8 control calves were given supernatant from noninfected cell culture. Disease was characterized by evaluating clinical signs, virus isolation and pulmonary function tests, and results of blood gas analysis, gross and histologic postmortem examination, and microbiologic testing.

Results

Cumulative incidence of cough, harsh lung sounds, adventitious sounds, and dyspnea and increases in rectal temperature and respiratory rate were significantly greater in infected calves. Three infected calves developed extreme respiratory distress and were euthanatized 7 days after inoculation. Virus was isolated from nasal swab specimens from all infected calves but not from mock infected calves. On day 7 after inoculation, mean Pao2 and Paco2 were significantly lower, and pulmonary resistance was significantly higher, in infected calves. During necropsy, infected calves had varying degrees of necrotizing and proliferative bronchiolitis and alveolitis with syncytial formation. The 3 calves euthanatized on day 7 had emphysematous bullae in the caudal lung lobes; 1 had unilateral pneumothorax.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance

Severe disease similar to that seen in some cattle with naturally acquired BRSV infection can be induced in calves with a single aerosol exposure of a low-passage clinical isolate of BRSV. Our model will be useful for studying the pathogenesis of BRSV infection and for evaluating vaccines and therapeutics. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:473-480)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate, under field conditions, the immunogenicity of 2 pseudorabies virus (PRV) vaccines (each with deletion of the gene for glycoprotein G [gG], and 1 with an additional deletion for glycoprotein E [gE]), particularly in the presence of maternal antibodies, and to investigate the effect of vaccination schedules in overcoming maternal antibody interference with vaccination.

Sample Population

Two cohorts of 105 growing pigs each on a PRV-seronegative commercial swine farm where breeding stock had been vaccinated with a PRV vaccine containing deletions of genes for gG and gE.

Procedure

Within each cohort, pigs were randomly assigned to 1 of 7 treatment groups. For each vaccine, vaccination was done at 8, 12, or 8 and 12 weeks of age. One group remained unvaccinated. Blood and nasal swab specimens were obtained at 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 weeks of age, and the immune response was measured, by use of an ELISA.

Results

In cohort 1, where prevalence of maternal antibodies at 8 weeks of age was lower, an immune response lasting until 16 weeks of age was induced in most pigs by either vaccine. In cohort 2, where prevalence of maternal antibodies at 8 weeks of age was higher, the gG-gE- vaccine elicited a lower immune response in the presence of maternal antibodies than did the gG- vaccine after single vaccination at 8 weeks of age. This maternal antibody interference with the response to vaccination was evident in serum and nasal mucosal antibodies.

Conclusions

The gE deletion decreases the immunogenicity of PRV vaccine in the presence of maternal antibodies. Although evidence of maternal antibody interference for the gG- vaccine existed, its immunogencity was diminished less in the presence of maternal antibodies than that of the gG-gE- vaccine. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:976–984)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Two indirect elisa containing outer membrane protein (omp) and lipopolysaccharide (lps) antigens from a field isolate of Salmonella choleraesuis var kunzendorf developed and evaluated in experimentally infected and uninfected control pigs. Experimentally induced infection with S choleraesuis was successfully established in 10 pigs by oral inoculation with 108 organisms, and 3 pigs died of clinical salmonellosis at postinoculation (pi) weeks 1, 2, and 4. Swab specimens from tonsils, nostrils, and rectum of pigs were obtained for culture, and sera were evaluated at weekly intervals for 9 weeks after inoculation. The elisa containing omp and lps antigens with either anti-swine IgG or protein albumin-to-globulin ratio (antiglobulin) conjugates were standardized for serologic evaluation. All 4 elisa (2 omp and 2 lps) detected seroconversion by pi week 3 and had sensitivities and specificities of 97.8 and 88.8, 100 and 100, 95.6 and 88.8, and 93.3 and 72.5%, at their ideal cutoff points (negative mean optical density + 2 sd). There was excellent agreement between all 4 elisa systems as determined by kappa values. Cultures of fecal, tonsil, and nasal swab specimens were positive for S choleraesuis until the fourth week of infection. Fecal swab specimens from 1 pig were positive for S choleraesuis until pl week 7. Persistent infection after antemortem culture results were negative was detected by all 4 elisa, which indicated consistently high titers until the end of pi week 9. Conventional bacteriologic examination of intestines, mesenteric lymph nodes, bone marrow, lung, liver, spleen, and bile yielded positive results for S choleraesuis in the 3 pigs that died of clinical infection, whereas results were negative in the other 7 pigs infected by the end of pl week 9. Histologic examination of lung, liver, spleen, intestines, and mesenteric lymph nodes from the 3 pigs that died of S choleraesuis infection revealed severe ulceration and inflammatory cell infiltration in the lamina propria and submucosa of the intestine, whereas minimal changes were observed in other organs.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To investigate in vitro antigenic relations, in vivo cross-protection, and isotype antibody responses to a winter dysentery (WD) and calf diarrhea strain of bovine coronavirus (BCV).

Design and Animals

Gnotobiotic and colostrum-deprived calves were inoculated oronasally with a WD (DBA) or a calf diarrhea (DB2) BCV, and were challenge exposed with the heterologous BCV.

Procedure

Nasal swab and feces specimens and blood samples were collected. Fecal and nasal specimens were assayed for BCV shedding by antigen-capture ELISA or immune electron microscopy. Bovine coronavirus antigens were detected in nasal epithelial cells by immunofluorescence. Antibody titers to BCV in serum were assayed by virus neutralization (VN), and BCV antibody isotype titers in feces and sera were quantitated by ELISA.

Results

All calves developed diarrhea and shed BCV nasally and in feces, then recovered and were protected from BCV-associated diarrhea after challenge exposure with the heterologous BCV. After challenge exposure with either strain, fecal shedding of DBA was detected in 1 of 4 calves and nasal shedding of DB2 was detected in 2 of 4 calves. Immunoglobulin M was the principal coproantibody to BCV early, followed predominantly by IgA. Immunoglobulin G1 coproantibody titers to BCV were low, but increased after challenge exposure. Immunoglobulin G1 antibodies were predominant in serum. After challenge exposure, all serum antibody isotype titers increased except IgG2. The VN antibody responses paralleled serum IgG1, antibody responses.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Immunoglobulin A coproantibodies at challenge exposure were associated with protection against diarrhea. Nasal shedding of BCV after challenge exposure confirmed field data documenting reinfection of the respiratory tract of cattle, suggesting that, in closed herds, respiratory tract infections constitute a source of BCV transmission to cows (WD) or young calves. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:48-53)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research