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Summary

Effects of endotoxemia on left ventricular contractility and systemic hemodynamics were determined in pentobarbital-anesthetized swine. A multielectrode conductance (volume) catheter and a high-fidelity pressure transducer catheter were passed retrograde into the left ventricle to continuously measure pressure and volume. End-systolic pressure-volume relationships were determined during transient (8 to 10 s) caudal vena caval balloon occlusion. Lactated Ringer's solution was administered at a rate sufficient to maintain left ventricular end-diastolic pressure ≥ 6 mm of Hg. Following baseline measurements, Escherichia coli endotoxin (055-B5) was infused iv at 2.5 μg/kg of body weight/h for 3 hours. Left ventricular end-systolic elastance (Ees), the slope of the end-systolic pressure-volume relationship; end-systolic elastance normalized for left ventricular end-diastolic volume (Ees norm); the rate of increase of left ventricular pressure (dP/dtmax); and preload recruitable stroke work (prsw, stroke work-to-end-diastolic volume relationship) did not change in endotoxemic swine, compared with baseline measurements or with values from control (physiologic saline solution-treated) swine. Left ventricular pressures and volumes had marked pig-to-pig variability in the control and endotoxin-treated groups. Determination of Ees, Ees norm, and prsw was further confounded by development of frequent premature ventricular contractions during caudal vena caval balloon occlusion. Endotoxin significantly (P < 0.05) decreased left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, compared with that in control swine, and significantly (P < 0.01) decreased left ventricular end-diastolic volume, compared with baseline. Endotoxin decreased cardiac index and arterial blood pressure, whereas heart rate, central venous pressure, and mean pulmonary arterial pressure increased. Endotoxin did not decrease myocardial contractility, as measured by Ees, Ees norm dP/dtmax, or prsw in anesthetized swine.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Objective

To examine regional distribution of blood flow in the brain of horses at rest and during exercise.

Animals

9 clinically normal horses.

Procedure

Regional brain blood flow was measured using radionuclide-labeled 15-μm-diameter microspheres injected into the left ventricle, while reference blood samples were obtained from the aorta.

Results

At rest, cerebral cortex and caudate nuclei received significantly higher blood flow, compared with cerebral white matter. A similar perfusion heterogeneity existed in the cerebellum. In the brain stem, a gradual tapering of blood flow from thalamus-hypothalamus towards medulla was observed in standing horses. Progressive significant increases in heart rate and in aortic and right atrial pressures occurred during exercise at 8 and 13 m/s, and horses developed significant arterial hypoxemia and hypercapnia. Cerebral and cerebellar gray- to white-matter perfusion heterogeneity was maintained during exercise, indicating differential metabolic O2 needs. Despite arterial hypoxemia, hypercapnia, and hypertension, exercise did not result in significant changes in blood flow to the cerebral cortex and caudate nuclei whereas, in cerebral white matter, a significant decrease in blood flow was observed. In all cerebral tissues, vascular resistance increased during exercise, indicating autoregulation of cerebral blood flow. In the cerebellar cortex, blood flow increased significantly with strenuous exercise as vasodilation occurred. Vascular resistance in cerebellar white matter increased during exercise at 13 m/s. Blood flow in the medulla, pons, midbrain, and thalamus-hypothalamus was not significantly altered during exercise from that at rest.

Conclusion

Despite arterial hypoxemia, hypercapnia, and hypertension, autoregulation of cerebral and cerebellar blood flow is maintained in horses during exercise. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:893–897)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Using radionuclide-labeled 15-μm-diameter microspheres injected into the left ventricle, we examined blood flow to the thyroid gland, adrenal glands, kidneys, and various gastrointestinal tract tissues in 9 healthy horses while they were standing quietly (rest) and during exercise at 2 work intensities (8 and 13 m/s). Hemodynamic measurements were made during steady-state conditions, as judged by the stability of heart rate as well as aortic, pulmonary, and right atrial pressures. The similarity of blood flow values for the left and the right kidneys during each of the 3 conditions indicated adequate mixing of microspheres with blood. In standing horses, of all tissues examined, the thyroid gland had the highest blood flow (1,655.2 ± 338.5 ml/min/100 g)—being about threefold that in the kidneys. Adrenal blood flow, by contrast, was only 25% of that in the kidneys (589.5 ± 50.4 ml/min/100 g). Among the gastrointestinal tract tissues, glandular stomach and pancreas had the highest blood flows (214.3 ± 21.6 and 197.6 ± 23.4 ml/min/100 g, respectively). Small intestinal perfusion was not different from that in the ventral colon and cecum, but their values exceeded those for the dorsal and small colons. Exercise at 8 and 13 m/s caused significant increase in adrenal blood flow as vascular resistance decreased significantly. In the kidneys, blood flow was only insignificantly affected during exercise at 8 m/s, but at 13 m/s there was a profound reduction in renal blood flow as intense renal vasoconstriction occurred. Vasoconstriction also caused thyroid and pancreatic blood flow to decrease significantly at both levels of exertion. Significant vasoconstriction occurring in all gastrointestional tract tissues at 8 and 13 m/s caused blood flow to be diverted away from these vascular beds. Thus, our data indicated that renal, adrenal, and splanchnic organ/tissue blood flow responses of strenuously exercising horses closely resemble those described for exercising ponies.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Tracheal, bronchial, and renal blood flow were studied in 8 healthy ponies at rest and during exercise performed on a treadmill at a speed setting of 20.8 km/h and 7% grade (incline) for 30 minutes. Blood flow was determined with 15-μm-diameter radionuclide-labeled microspheres that were injected into the left ventricle when the ponies were at rest, and at 5, 15, and 26 minutes of exertion. Heart rate and mean aortic pressure increased from resting values (40 ± 2 beats/min and 124 ± 3 mm of Hg, respectively) to 152 ± 8 beats/min and 133 ± 4 mm of Hg at 5 minutes of exercise, to 169 ± 6 beats/min and 143 ± 5 mm of Hg at 15 minutes of exercise, and to 186 ± 8 beats/min, and 150 ± 5 mm of Hg at 26 minutes of exercise. Tracheal blood flow at rest and during exercise remained significantly (P < 0.05) less than bronchial blood flow. Tracheal blood flow increased only slightly with exercise. Vasodilation caused bronchial blood flow to increase throughout exercise. Pulmonary arterial blood temperature of ponies also increased significantly (P < 0.05) with exercise and a significant (P < 0.005) correlation was found between bronchial blood flow and pulmonary arterial blood temperature during exertion. At 5 minutes of exercise, renal blood flow was unchanged from the resting value; however, renal vasoconstriction was observed at 15 and 26 minutes of exercise. We concluded that bronchial circulation of ponies increased with exercise in close association with a rise in pulmonary arterial blood temperature. Also, increased thermal burden necessitated redistribution of blood flow away from kidneys late in exercise.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Experiments were carried out on 8 healthy ponies to examine the effects of prolonged submaximal exercise on regional distribution of brain blood flow. Brain blood flow was ascertained by use of 15-μm-diameter radionuclide-labeled microspheres injected into the left ventricle. The reference blood was withdrawn from the thoracic aorta at a constant rate of 21.0 ml/min. Hemodynamic data were obtained with the ponies at rest (control), and at 5, 15, and 26 minutes of exercise performed at a speed setting of 13 mph on a treadmill with a fixed incline of 7%. Exercise lasted for 30 minutes and was carried out at an ambient temperature of 20 C. Heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and core temperature increased significantly with exercise. With the ponies at rest, a marked heterogeneity of perfusion was observed within the brain; the cerebral, as well as cerebellar gray matter, had greater blood flow than in the respective white matter, and a gradually decreasing gradient of blood flow existed from thalamus-hypothalamus to medulla. This pattern of perfusion heterogeneity was preserved during exercise. Regional brain blood flow at 5 and 15 minutes of exercise remained similar to resting values. However, at 26 minutes of exercise, vasoconstriction resulted in a significant reduction in blood flow to all cerebral and brain-stem regions. In the cerebellum, the gray matter blood flow and vascular resistance remained near control values even at 26 minutes of exercise. Vasoconstriction in various regions of the cerebrum and brainstem at 26 minutes of exertion may have occurred in response to exercise-induced hypocapnia, arterial hypertension, and/or sympathetic neural activation.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Distribution of blood flow among various respiratory muscles was examined in 8 healthy ponies during submaximal exercise lasting 30 minutes, using radionuclide labeled 15-μm diameter microspheres injected into the left ventricle. From the resting values (40 ± 2 beats/min; 37.3 ± 0.2 C), heart rate and pulmonary arterial blood temperature increased significantly at 5 (152 ± 8 beats/min; 38.6 ± 0.2 C), 15 (169 ± 6 beats/min; 39.8 ± 0.2 C), and 26 (186 ± 8 beats/min; 40.8 ± 0.2 C) minutes of exertion, and the ponies sweated profusely. Mean aortic pressure also increased progressively as exercise duration increased. Blood flow increased significantly with exercise in all respiratory muscles. Among inspiratory muscles, perfusion was greatest in the diaphragm and ventral serratus, compared with external intercostal, dorsal serratas, and scalenus muscles. Among expiratory muscles, blood flow in the internal abdominal oblique muscle was greatest, followed by that in internal intercostal and transverse throacic muscles, in which the flow values remained similar. The remaining 3 abdominal muscles had similar blood flow, but these values were less than that in the internal intercostal, transverse thoracic, and internal abdominal oblique muscles. Blood flow values for all inspiratory and expiratory muscles remained similar for the 5 and 15 minutes of exertion. However, at 26 minutes, blood flow had increased further in the diaphragm, external intercostal, internal intercostal, transverse thoracic, and the external abdominal oblique muscle as vascular resistance decreased. On the basis of our findings, all respiratory muscles were activated during submaximal exercise and their perfusion had marked heterogeneity. Also, blood flow in respiratory muscles was well maintained as exercise duration progressed; in fact, several muscles had a further increase in perfusion late during exercise.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

hyperattenuating foci throughout the left ventricle and portions of the right ventricle (likely representing the mineralized areas seen on radiographs) as well as mild tricuspid insufficiency ( Figure 3 ). Figure 3— Right parasternal short

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

cranial lung lobe. The right ventricle was distended. On the epicardial surface, there were 2, pink to tan, well-demarcated, flat, ovoid nodules, 1 located cranially to the great cardiac vein and 1 caudally. Within the left ventricle, there was a thick

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

have QRS complexes that are positive in lead II (disregard the T wave), and VPCs originating in the left ventricle should have QRS complexes that are negative in lead II. This is based on the fact that left ventricular mass normally exceeds right

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

, echocardiography has some limitations; for example, imaging from some angles can result in foreshortened views of the left ventricle, and different projections cannot be acquired during a single cardiac cycle. Multi-detector row CT may provide a suitable means of

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research