Search Results

You are looking at 41 - 50 of 372 items for :

  • "hyperglycemia" x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All

Objective

To assess pretreatment clinical and laboratory findings in cats with diabetes mellitus and to determine the influence of ketoacidosis on pretreatment findings.

Design

Retrospective case series.

Animals

104 cats with diabetes melliitus, 38 of which had ketoacidosis.

Procedure

Medical records of cats with diabetes mellitus examined over a 20-month period were reviewed. Cats that had received previous treatment for diabetes mellitus, or for which medical records were incomplete, were excluded from this study.

Results

Cats ranged in age from 1 to 19 years (median, 11 years). Male cats were twice as likely to develop diabetes as females. The most common historical signs were polyuria, polydipsia, weight loss, and diminished activity. Anorexia or poor appetite was reported more commonly than polyphagia, especially in cats with ketoacidosis. Diminished activity, anorexia, weakness, and vomiting were all significantly more common in ketoacidotic cats than in nonketoacidotic cats. Forty-four cats were considered thin, and 34 were considered obese. All cats had hyperglycemia and most had hypercholesterolemia and high activities of 1 or more hepatic enzymes. Compared with nonketoacidotic cats, ketoacidotic cats were more likely to have had low serum electrolyte values. All cats had glucosuria and 42 (40.4%) had ketonuria. Baseline serum insulin concentrations were measured in 18 cats and were low or at the low end of the reference range in 14 (77.8%) cats. Serum fructosamine concentration, determined in 22 cats, was high in 20 (90.9%) cats. Twenty-three of the 104 (22.1%) cats had concurrent disease, the most common of which were hyperthyroidism, inflammatory bowel disease, and eosinophilic granuloma complex.

Clinical Implications

In more than a third of cats, diabetes mellitus is complicated by development of ketoacidosis, which increases the severity of clinical and laboratory abnormalities. Diagnosis of diabetes mellitus is made on the basis of signalment (eg, middle-aged to old male cats), owner complaints (eg, polyuria, polydipsia, and weight loss), physical examination findings (eg, lethargy or muscle wasting), and laboratory findings {eg, hyperglycemia and glucosuria). (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996,209:943-949)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To measure activities of NADPH-dependent reductases and sorbitol dehydrogenase in lenses from healthy dogs and cats.

Sample Population—Lenses from 37 dogs and 23 cats. All animals were healthy and had serum glucose concentrations within reference limits.

Procedure—Lenses were homogenized, and activities of NADPH-dependent reductases and sorbitol dehydrogenase were measured spectrophotometrically.

Results—Activities of NADPH-dependent reductases and sorbitol dehydrogenase were significantly lower in lenses from cats than in lenses from dogs. However, the ratio of NADPH-dependent reductases activity-to-sorbitol dehydrogenase activity was significantly higher in lenses from cats than in lenses from dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicate that during periods of hyperglycemia, sorbitol would accumulate at a faster rate in the lenses of cats than in the lenses of dogs. Thus, the higher incidence of diabetic cataracts in dogs, compared with cats, is likely not attributable to a difference in the ratio of NADPH-dependent reductases activity-to-sorbitol dehydrogenase activity. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61: 1322–1324)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To determine the effect of hyperthyroidism on serum fructosamine concentration in cats.

Design

Cohort study.

Animals

22 cats with overt hyperthyroidism.

Procedure

Hyperthyroidism was diagnosed on the basis of clinical signs, detection of a palpable thyroid gland, and high total serum thyroxine (T4) concentrations. Hyperthyroid cats with abnormal serum albumin, total protein, and glucose concentrations were excluded from the study. Samples for determination of serum fructosamine concentration were obtained prior to initiating treatment. Results were compared with fructosamine concentrations in healthy cats, cats in which diabetes had recently been diagnosed, and cats with hypoproteinemia. In 6 cats, follow-up measurements were obtained 2 and 6 weeks after initiating treatment with carbimazole.

Results

Serum fructosamine concentrations ranged from 154 to 267 μmol/L (median, 198 μmol/L) and were significantly lower than values in healthy cats. Eleven (50%) of the hyperthyroid cats had serum fructosamine concentrations less than the reference range. Serum fructosamine concentrations in hyperthyroid, normoproteinemic cats did not differ from values in hypoproteinemic cats. During treatment, an increase in serum fructosamine concentration was detected.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

In hyperthyroid cats, concentration of serum fructosamine may be low because of accelerated protein turnover, independent of blood glucose concentration. Serum fructosamine concentrations should not be evaluated in cats with overt hyperthyroidism and diabetes mellitus. Additionally, concentration of serum fructosamine in hyperthyroid cats should not be used to differentiate between diabetes mellitus and transitory stress-related hyperglycemia. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;215:1297–1300)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To investigate the effects of inhalation and total IV anesthesia on pituitary-adrenal activity in ponies.

Animals

9 healthy ponies: 5 geldings and 4 mares.

Procedure

Catheters were placed in the cavernous sinus below the pituitary gland and in the subarachnoid space via the lumbosacral space. After 72 hours, administration of acepromazine was followed by induction of anesthesia with thiopentone and maintenance with halothane (halothane protocol), or for the IV protocol, anesthesia induction with detomidine and ketamine was followed by maintenance with IV infusion of a detomidine-ketamine-guaifenesin combination. Arterial blood pressure and gas tensions were measured throughout anesthesia. Peptide and catecholamine concentrations were measured in pituitary effluent, peripheral plasma, and CSF. Peripheral plasma cortisol, glucose, and lactate concentrations also were measured.

Results

Intravenous anesthesia caused less cardiorespiratory depression than did halothane. ACTH, metenkephalin, arginine vasopressin, and norepinephrine pituitary effluent and peripheral plasma concentrations were higher during halothane anesthesia, with little change during intravenous anesthesia. Pituitary effluent plasma β-endorphin and peripheral plasma cortisol concentrations increased during halothane anesthesia only. Dynorphin concentrations did not change in either group. Hyperglycemia developed during intravenous anesthesia only. Minimal changes occurred in CSF hormonal concentrations during anesthesia.

Conclusion

The pituitary gland has a major role in maintaining circulating peptides during anesthesia. Compared with halothane, IV anesthesia appeared to suppress pituitary secretion. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:765–770)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To determine the effects of IV administration of fluids on PCV, serum total protein and blood glucose concentrations, and systolic arterial pressure in healthy anesthetized dogs undergoing elective surgical procedures.

Design

Prospective, randomized controlled trial.

Animals

70 clinically normal dogs.

Procedure

Dogs received IV administration of 0, 5, 10, or 15 ml/kg of body weight/h of a polyionic crystalloid solution or 5% dextrose in water. Blood samples were collected before and after administration of medication, prior to anesthetic induction, after anesthetic induction, at the end of the surgical procedure, and 2 hours after surgery to determine PCV and serum total protein and blood glucose concentrations. Blood pressure was measured before and after anesthetic induction and at the end of the surgery.

Results

There were not any significant differences in PCV, total protein concentration, or systolic arterial pressure among treatment groups. Hyperglycemia developed in dogs receiving 5% dextrose in water, but resolved 2 hours after discontinuing administration of fluids.

Clinical Implications

Intravenous administration of fluids may not be necessary to maintain normal blood pressure in young, healthy dogs undergoing elective surgery. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;208:2013-2015)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate the toxic effects of amitraz in dogs and their reversal by various doses of atipamezole.

Animals

6 male 1-year-old Beagles.

Procedure

Dogs were given 100 mg of amitraz/kg of body weight, PO. Atipamezole was administered at 3 dose rates. Clinical examination and blood sample collection were performed regularly for 48 hours to examine biological parameters and determine the toxicokinetics of amitraz as well as the efficacy of the antidote. A specific high-performance thin layer chromatographic method was developed to determine plasma amitraz concentrations.

Results

Clinical signs of toxicosis included sedation, bradycardia, polyuria, hypothermia, and hyperglycemia, all of which could be related to the α2-agonist activity of amitraz, and were reversed by low doses of atipamezole (50 μg/kg, IM), a potent α2-antagonist, within 10 minutes after injection. Peak plasma concentrations were observed after 5 hours, and the elimination half-life was long (about 24 hours).

Conclusions

All clinical and biological effects observed during the course of amitraz poisoning could be attributed to the parent compound itself and were reversed by low doses of atipamezole. The half-life of amitraz was substantially longer than that in other studies because of the high dose administered.

Clinical Relevance

Atipamezole can be administered IM to dogs with severe amitraz poisoning to reverse all the effects observed. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:1506-1510)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Venous access devices connected to jugular vein catheters were implanted sc in 2 groups of 6 White Carneau pigeons (Columba livia). Total parenteral nutrition (tpn), or a control solution (lactated Ringer's solution) was infused as a bolus 4 times daily. Physiologic, hematologic, and biochemical variables were monitored over 5 days. Complications in the TPN-treated pigeons included 8.7% weight loss during the 5-day trial, hyperglycemia for up to 90 minutes after infusion, and glucosuria after infusion. Control pigeons lost 1.3% of their body weight and did not become hyperglycemic or glucosuric after infusion. Hematocrit in both groups of pigeons decreased to a value slightly below published reference values for pigeons. Five pigeons developed venous thrombosis in the proximal part of the cranial vena cava. Results indicated that intermittent administration of tpn is possible in birds; however, further research is required to develop better techniques for administration of tpn solutions. Additionally, it is important to determine, more specifically, the caloric and nutrient requirements of pigeons under stress and receiving tpn.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

The clinical efficacy of the lazaroid, tirilazad mesylate, a new therapeutic agent for prophylaxis and treatment of endotoxemia, was evaluated in 24 neonatal Holstein calves. Endotoxemia was induced by iv infusion of commercial Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (3.25 µg/kg of body weight) over 3 hours. Group-1 calves were given endotoxin alone; group-2 calves were given an infusion of 0.9% sterile saline solution, then were treated with tirilazad mesylate (1.5 mg/kg) 1 hour after the infusion was started. Group-3 calves were treated with tirilazad mesylate 1 hour after the start of the endotoxin infusion, and group-4 calves were given tirilazad mesylate 1 hour before the start of the endotoxin infusion.

Clinical signs of endotoxemia were mitigated by tirilazad mesylate. In addition, tirilazad mesylate protected calves from endotoxin-induced hyperglycemia; treatment after endotoxin infusion decreased the severity of hypoglycemia and prevented lactic acidosis. Treatment with tirilazad mesylate after initiation of endotoxin infusion was as protective as was pretreatment.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

/L), marked toxic changes, and marked monocytosis (monocytes, 18.7 X 10 9 cells/L; reference interval, 1 0.03 X 10 9 to 1.39 X 10 9 cells/L). Plasma biochemical analyses revealed marked hyperglycemia (82.4 mmol/L; reference interval, 1 6 to 18.5 mmol

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To examine stress-related neurohormonal and metabolic effects of butorphanol, fentanyl, and ketamine administration alone and in combination with medetomidine in dogs.

Animals—10 Beagles.

Procedure—5 dogs received either butorphanol (0.1 mg/kg), fentanyl (0.01 mg/kg), or ketamine (10 mg/kg) IM in a crossover design. Another 5 dogs received either medetomidine (0.02 mg/kg) and butorphanol (0.1 mg/kg), medetomidine and fentanyl (0.01 mg/kg), medetomidine and ketamine (10 mg/kg), or medetomidine and saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (0.1 mL/kg) in a similar design. Blood samples were obtained for 6 hours following the treatments. Norepinephrine, epinephrine, cortisol, glucose, insulin, and nonesterified fatty acid concentrations were determined in plasma.

Results—Administration of butorphanol, fentanyl, and ketamine caused neurohormonal and metabolic changes similar to stress, including increased plasma epinephrine, cortisol, and glucose concentrations. The hyperglycemic effect of butorphanol was not significant. Ketamine caused increased norepinephrine concentration. Epinephrine concentration was correlated with glucose concentration in the butorphanol and fentanyl groups but not in the ketamine groups, suggesting an important difference between the mechanisms of the hyperglycemic effects of these drugs. Medetomidine prevented most of these effects except for hyperglycemia. Plasma glucose concentrations were lower in the combined sedation groups than in the medetomidine-saline solution group.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Opioids or ketamine used alone may cause changes in stressrelated biochemical variables in plasma. Medetomidine prevented or blunted these changes. Combined sedation provided better hormonal and metabolic stability than either component alone. We recommend using medetomidine-butorphanol or medetomidine-ketamine combinations for sedation or anesthesia of systemically healthy dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:406–412)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research