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Abstract

Objective—To evaluate owner compliance with longterm home monitoring of blood glucose concentrations in diabetic cats and assess the influence of home monitoring on the frequency of reevaluation of those cats at a veterinary hospital.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—26 cats with diabetes mellitus.

Procedure—Medical records of diabetic cats for which home monitoring was undertaken were reviewed, and owners were contacted by telephone. Signalment, laboratory test results, insulin treatment regimen, details of home monitoring, clinical signs during treatment, frequency of follow-up examinations, and survival times were evaluated.

Results—Monitoring of cats commenced within 12 weeks (median, 3 weeks) after initial evaluation; 8 owners were unable to perform home monitoring, and 1 cat was euthanatized after 1 week. In 17 cats, duration of home monitoring was 4.8 to 46.0 months (median, 22.0 months); 6 cats died after 7.0 to 18.0 months (median, 13.0 months). In 11 cats, home monitoring was ongoing at completion of the study (12.0 to 46.0 months' duration). Fourteen owners completed blood glucose curves every 2 to 4 weeks. Cats managed with home monitoring received higher dosages of insulin, compared with cats that were not monitored. Four of 17 cats managed by home monitoring had transient resolution of diabetes mellitus for as long as 1 year. Home monitoring did not affect the frequency of reevaluation at the veterinary hospital.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Owner compliance with long-term home monitoring appeared to be satisfactory, and home monitoring did not affect the frequency of reevaluation of patients by veterinarians. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:261–266)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare blood glucose (BG) concentrations measured with a portable blood glucose meter in blood samples obtained with a marginal ear vein (MEV) nick technique, from a peripheral venous catheter, and by direct venipuncture in healthy cats and cats with diabetes mellitus.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—10 healthy cats and 11 cats with diabetes mellitus.

Procedure—On day 1, blood samples were collected every hour for 10 hours by the MEV nick technique and from a peripheral venous catheter. On day 2, blood samples were collected every hour for 10 hours by the MEV nick technique and by direct venipuncture of the medial saphenous vein.

Results—For all cats, mean BG concentration for samples collected by the MEV nick technique was not significantly different from mean concentration for samples obtained from the peripheral venous catheter. For healthy cats, mean BG concentration for samples collected by the MEV nick technique was not significantly different from mean concentration for samples obtained by direct venipuncture. For cats with diabetes mellitus, mean BG concentration for samples collected by the MEV nick technique was significantly different from mean concentration for samples obtained by direct venipuncture; however, for the range of concentrations examined, this difference was not clinically important.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that for the range of concentrations examined, the MEV nick technique is a reasonable alternative to venous blood collection for serial measurement of BG concentrations in cats. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002; 221:389–392)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To determine magnesium (Mg) status in cats with naturally acquired diabetes mellitus (DM) and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), evaluate changes in Mg status after treatment for DKA, and correlate Mg status with systemic blood pressure and degree of glycemic control.

Design

Case series and cohort study.

Animals

12 healthy cats (controls), 21 cats with DM, and 7 cats with DKA.

Procedure

Serum total magnesium (tMg) and ionized magnesium (iMg) concentrations and spot urinary fractional excretion of magnesium (FEmg) were determined, using serum and urine samples obtained from all cats when they were entered in the study and from cats with DKA 12, 24, and 48 hours after initiating treatment. Indirect blood pressure and degree of glycemic control were determined in 10 and 21 cats with DM, respectively.

Results

Initially, 2 and 13 cats with DM and 1 and 4 cats with DKA had serum tMg and iMg concentrations, respectively, less than the low reference limit (mean — 2 SD) determined for controls. In cats with DKA, serum tMg concentration decreased significantly over time after initiating treatment. Urinary FEmg was significantly higher in cats with DM or DKA, compared with controls. Systemic hypertension was not detected nor was there a correlation between Mg status and degree of glycemic control in cats with DM.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Hypomagnesemia was a common finding in cats with DM and DKA and was more readily identified by measuring serum iMg concentration than tMg concentration. The clinical ramifications of hypomagnesemia in such cats remain to be determined. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;215:1455–1459)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the reliability of history and physical examination findings for assessing control of glycemia in insulin-treated diabetic dogs.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—53 insulin-treated dogs with diabetes mellitus.

Procedure—Medical records of insulin-treated diabetic dogs from June 1995 to June 1998 were reviewed, and information on owner perception of their dog's response to insulin treatment, physical examination findings, body weight, insulin dosage, and concentrations of food-withheld (ie, fasting) blood glucose (FBG), mean blood glucose (MBG) during an 8-hour period, blood glycosylated hemoglobin (GHb), and serum fructosamine was obtained. Owner's perception of their dog's response to insulin treatment, physical examination findings, and changes in body weight were used to classify control of glycemia as good or poor for each dog. The FBG, MBG/8 h, blood GHb, and serum fructosamine concentrations were compared between well-controlled and poorly controlled insulin-treated diabetic dogs.

Results—Presence or absence of polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, lethargy, and weakness were most helpful in classifying control of glycemia. Mean FBG and MBG/8 h concentrations, blood GHb concentrations, and serum fructosamine concentrations were significantly decreased in 25 well-controlled diabetic dogs, compared with 28 poorly controlled diabetic dogs. Most well-controlled diabetic dogs had concentrations of FBG between 100 and 300 mg/dl, MBG/8 h ≤ 250 mg/dl, blood GHb ≤ 7.5%, and serum fructosamine ≤ 525 µmol/L, whereas most poorly controlled diabetic dogs had results that were greater than these values.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Reliance on history, physical examination findings, and changes in body weight are effective for initially assessing control of glycemia in insulin-treated diabetic dogs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:48–53)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To characterize glycosylated hemoglobin (GHb) concentrations in the blood of dogs with disorders that may affect serum glucose or blood GHb concentrations, and to determine whether changes in GHb concentration correlate with changes in control of diabetes in dogs.

Design

Prospective study.

Animals

63 healthy dogs, 9 dogs with anemia, 24 dogs with untreated hyperadrenocorticism, 12 dogs with pancreatic β-cell neoplasia, 23 dogs with newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus, and 77 diabetic dogs treated with insulin.

Procedure

Control of diabetes in dogs treated with insulin was classified as good or poor on the basis of history, physical examination findings, changes in body weight, and measurement of serum glucose concentrations. Sequential evaluations of control were performed and GHb concentration in blood was measured, by means of affinity chromatography, for 5 untreated diabetic dogs before and after initiating insulin treatment, for 10 poorly controlled diabetic dogs before and after increasing insulin dosage, and for 5 diabetic dogs before and after pancreatic islet cell transplantation.

Results

Mean (± SD) GHb concentration was 3.3 ± 0.8% in the blood of healthy dogs. Compared with results from healthy dogs, mean GHb concentration was significantly lower in the blood of dogs with anemia and pancreatic β-cell neoplasia and significantly higher in the blood of untreated diabetic dogs. Mean GHb concentration was significantly higher in the blood of 46 poorly controlled diabetic dogs, compared with 31 well-controlled diabetic dogs (7.3 ± 1.8 vs 5.7 ± 1.7%, respectively). Mean GHb concentration in blood decreased significantly in 5 untreated diabetic dogs after treatment (8.7 ± 1.9 vs 5.3 ± 1.9%). Mean GHb concentration in blood also decreased significantly in 10 poorly controlled diabetic dogs after control was improved and in 5 diabetic dogs after they had received a pancreatic islet cell transplant.

Clinical Implications

Measurement of GHb concentration in blood may assist in monitoring control of diabetes in dogs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997; 211:723–727)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

would correlate strongly with the results of a reference laboratory standard. Methods Inclusion criteria Cats weighing > 1.5 kg were eligible for study inclusion. Animals presenting with persistent signs of diabetes mellitus (polyuria

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

; 66 ( 2 ): 80 - 92 . doi: 10.12681/jhvms.15613 25. Hess RS , Saunders HM , Van Winkle TJ , Ward CR . Concurrent disorders in dogs with diabetes mellitus: 221 cases (1993-1998) . J Am Vet Med Assoc . 2000 ; 217 ( 8 ): 1166 - 1173 . doi

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association