Search Results

You are looking at 41 - 50 of 250 items for :

  • "bronchoalveolar lavage" x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All

Abstract

Objective—To analyze effects of hay dust exposure on interleukin-8 (IL-8) concentration, percentage of neutrophils, and neutrophil chemotactic activity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of horses with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

Animals—16 healthy horses and 29 horses with COPD.

Procedure—IL-8 concentration, percentage of neutrophils, and neutrophil chemotactic activity in BALF were measured. Values were analyzed with respect to hay dust exposure. These variables were also measured in 5 asymptomatic horses with COPD after the induction of clinical signs by changing feed from silage to hay.

Results—IL-8 concentrations and chemotactic activity in BALF were greater in horses with COPD, compared with healthy horses, and greater in horses with COPD exposed to hay dust, compared with nonexposed affected horses. An increase in IL-8 concentration accompanied by an increase in percentage of neutrophils in BALF and development of clinical signs of COPD were induced in asymptomatic horses with COPD by changing feed from silage to hay.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Exposure of horses with COPD to hay dust components resulted in an increase in IL-8 secretion at the bronchoalveolar surface. This chemokine may play a role in the pathogenesis of COPD, because it causes neutrophil accumulation in the bronchoalveolar space. Our results underscore the importance of eliminating dust sources for the treatment and prevention of COPD in horses. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1369–1374)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare results of thoracic radiography, cytologic evaluation of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, and histologic evaluation of biopsy and necropsy specimens in dogs with respiratory tract disease and to determine whether histologic evaluation provides important diagnostic information not attainable by the other methods.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—16 dogs.

Procedure—BAL fluid was classified as normal, neutrophilic, eosinophilic, mononuclear, mixed, neoplastic, or nondiagnostic. Radiographic abnormalities were classified as interstitial, bronchial, bronchointerstitial, or alveolar. Histologic lesions were classified as inflammatory, fibrotic, or neoplastic, and the predominant site of histologic lesions was classified as the alveoli, interstitium, or airway.

Results—The predominant radiographic location of lesions correlated with the histologic location in 8 dogs. Of 11 dogs with histologic evidence of inflammatory disease, 8 had inflammatory BAL fluid. Of the 2 dogs with histologic evidence of neoplasia, 1 had BAL fluid suggestive of neoplasia, and the other had BAL fluid consistent with septic purulent inflammation. Two dogs without any histologic abnormalities had mononuclear or nondiagnostic BAL fluid. Two dogs with histologic evidence of fibrosis had mononuclear or mixed inflammatory BAL fluid.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that although thoracic radiography, cytologic evaluation of BAL fluid, and histologic evaluation of lung specimens are complementary, each method has limitations in regard to how well results reflect the underlying disease process in dogs with respiratory tract disease. Lung biopsy should be considered in cases where results of radiography and cytology are nondiagnostic. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218: 1456–1461)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

One indication for referral of horses to veterinary hospitals is for diagnosis of the microbiologic cause of pneumonia, particularly when the initial treatment fails. Although endoscopic methods have long been available for microbiologic sample collection, accuracy of these methods under these conditions have not been studied in detail. We compared the bacteria isolated from samples obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage (bal) with those obtained by protected catheter brush (pcb) from foals with unilateral pneumonia induced by inoculation with Klebsiella pneumoniae. As part of previously described clinical trials, foals were administered antimicrobial therapy im (n = 15) or vehicle im (n = 7), and collection of distal airway secretion samples was conducted during the treatment period. Sensitivity and specificity of the sample collection methods were assessed by comparison of the isolates from bal or pcb samples with isolates from tissue of the inoculated lung lobe, which was the most severely affected lung region. Sensitivity and specificity of bal for recovery of K pneumoniae (challenge strain) and Streptococcus zooepidemicus (common secondary pathogen) was 90 and 69%, respectively, compared with 76 and 85%, respectively, for the pcb method. Sensitivity was significantly (P = 0.03) higher for bal (100%) than for pcb (69%) for recovery of K pneumoniae (P = 0.03) from lungs. However, difference in the sensitivity of these methods for recovery of S zooepidemicus was not significant. In conclusion, bal was a more reliable method for recovery of bacteria from the lungs in chronically infected foals that received antimicrobial treatment.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To determine systemic and mucosal antibody responses in calves to Pasteurella haemolytica 1:A and to 2 major outer membrane proteins (OMP) and 1 major iron-regulated OMP of P haemolytica 1:A.

Animals

23 crossbred calves.

Procedure

2 experiments were performed. In the first experiment, 6 calves were vaccinated and challenge exposed intranasally with an aerosol of P haemolytica 1:A and 6 calves were only challenge exposed. In the second experiment, 8 calves were vaccinated in the area of the tracheal bifurcation with an aerosol of P haemolytica 1:A and 3 calves were used as controls. Serum, nasal secretions, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples were collected, and IgG1, IgG2, IgA, and IgM titers were determined. Nasal secretions and BAL samples were also submitted for bacterial culture.

Results

Serum antibody responses in the 2 groups were similar. Antibody titers in nasal secretions and BAL samples increased in calves vaccinated intranasally. In calves vaccinated in the area of the tracheal bifurcation, antibody titers increased in BAL samples but not in nasal secretions. Antibody responses did not correlate with results of bacterial culture.

Conclusions

Results indicated that intranasal administration of P haemolytica 1:A may be a better method for stimulating protective immune responses in the upper portion of the respiratory tract than lung administration. The single dilution ELISA provided a reliable and economical method for determining antibody titers. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:727-732)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To determine cytologic changes in horses with recurrent airway obstruction (heaves) after administration of aerosolized beclomethasone dipropionate and dexamethasone parenterally.

Animals

6 horses with inducible and reversible heaves.

Procedure

Episodes of heaves were induced by exposure to moldy hay and straw for 7 days. Horses were assigned to treatment groups (aerosolized beclomethasone, parenterally administered dexamethasone, aerosolized propellant), and pulmonary inflammation was evaluated by serial cytologic examination of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid samples obtained on days 0, 7, 10, 14, and 21. Total and differential cell counting and phenotypic analysis of lymphocyte subpopulations in BAL fluid were performed.

Results

7 days of natural challenge induced neutrophilic inflammation. Neutrophil counts in BAL fluid were reduced in beclomethasone- and dexamethasone-treated horses on days 10 and 14 but rebounded to pretreatment values on day 21. The proportion of proinflammatory lymphocyte subpopulations (CD4+ and B+) and MHC class-II antigen expression were increased on days 14 and 21 in propellant-treated horses, compared with beclomethasone- and dexamethasone-treated horses.

Conclusions

Aerosolized beclomethasone attenuated neutrophilic pulmonary inflammation and prevented alteration in lymphocyte subpopulations in horses with heaves. Results were similar to the response associated with parenterally administered dexamethasone. Short-term administration of aerosolized beclomethasone without minimizing environmental allergen exposure is not expected to provide prolonged anti-inflammatory benefit for horses with heaves. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:1033–1038)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objectives—To determine effects of selectin inhibitor TBC1269 on neutrophil infiltration, and neutrophilassociated injury during pneumonia induced by Mannheimia haemolytica and concentration of antimicrobial anionic peptide (AAP) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) as well as antimicrobial activity of BALF from healthy (control) neonatal calves, neonatal calves with M haemolytica-induced pneumonia, neonatal calves with prior treatment with TBC1269, and adult cattle.

Animals—Eighteen 1- to 3-day-old calves and 9 adult cattle.

Procedure—Calves were inoculated with M haemolyticaor pyrogen-free saline (0.14M NaCl) solution into the right cranial lung lobe, and BALF was collected 2 or 6 hours after inoculation. Thirty minutes before and 2 hours after inoculation, 4 calves received TBC1269. The BALF collected from 9 adult cattle was used for comparison of BALF AAP concentration and antimicrobial activity. Protein concentration and neutrophil differential percentage and degeneration in BALF were determined. An ELISA and killing assay were used to determine BALF AAP concentration and antimicrobial activity, respectively.

Results—Total protein concentration was significantly decreased in BALF from calves receiving TBC1269. Similar concentrations of AAP were detected in BALF from all calves, which were 3-fold higher than those in BALF from adult cattle. However, BALF from neonates had little or no anti-M haemolytica activity.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—These results suggest that TBC1269 decreases pulmonary tissue injury in neonatal calves infected with M haemolytica. Although AAP is detectable in neonatal BALF at 3 times the concentration detected in adult BALF, neonatal BALF lacks antimicrobial activity for M haemolytica. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:665–672)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Bronchoalveolar lavage (bal) was performed in 47 dogs with multicentric malignant lymphoma (ml). Cytologic results were evaluated, and ability to detect pulmonary involvement with ml, using bal, was compared with ability to detect pulmonary involvement, using thoracic radiography and tracheal wash. Lung lobes were considered to be involved with ml on the basis of bal fluid findings if morphologically abnormal lymphocytes were present in the fluid.

Total nucleated cell count, relative lymphocyte count, and absolute lymphocyte count were greater (P < 0.001) in bal fluid from dogs with multicentric ml than in bal fluid from histologically normal dogs. Pulmonary involvement with ml was detected by bal fluid cytologic examination in 89 of 135 lung lobes lavaged (66%). Lung lobes involved with ml were from 31 of the 47 dogs with multicentric ml (66%). Radiographic abnormalities supportive of pulmonary parenchymal involvement with ml were detected in 16 of the 47 dogs (34%). Of these 16 dogs, 15 (94%) had pulmonary involvement with ml on the basis of bal fluid cytologic findings. Tracheal wash fluid contained abnormal lymphocytes in 4 of 42 dogs (10%). In all 4 dogs, bal fluid also contained abnormal lymphocytes. Cytologic evaluation of bal fluid was more sensitive in detecting pulmonary involvement with ml, compared with radiographic evaluation of the lungs or tracheal wash.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association