Search Results

You are looking at 31 - 40 of 368 items for :

  • "veterinary microbiology" x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All

Abstract

Objective—To compare pathogenicity of an emergent abortifacient Campylobacter jejuni (IA 3902) with that of reference strains after oral inoculation in pregnant guinea pigs.

Animals—58 pregnant guinea pigs.

Procedures—12 animals were challenged IP with C jejuni IA 3902 along with 5 sham-inoculated control animals to confirm abortifacient potential. Once pathogenicity was confirmed, challenge via oral inoculation was performed whereby 12 guinea pigs received IA 3902, 12 received C jejuni isolated from ovine feces (OF48), 12 received a fully sequenced human C jejuni isolate (NCTC 11168), and 5 were sham-inoculated control animals. After abortions, guinea pigs were euthanized; samples were collected for microbial culture, histologic examination, and immunohistochemical analysis.

ResultsC jejuni IA 3902 induced abortion in all 12 animals following IP inoculation and 6 of 10 animals challenged orally. All 3 isolates colonized the intestines after oral inoculation, but only IA 3902 induced abortion. Evidence of infection existed for both IA 3902 and NCTC 11168; however, C jejuni was only recovered from fetoplacental units of animals inoculated with IA 3902. Immunohistochemical analysis localized C jejuni IA 3902 infection to subplacental trophoblasts, perivascular tissues, and phagocytes in the placental transitional zone.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—This study revealed that C jejuni IA 3902 was a unique, highly abortifacient strain with the ability to colonize the intestines, induce systemic infection, and cause abortion because of its affinity for the fetoplacental unit. Guinea pigs could be effectively used in the study of septic abortion after oral inoculation with this Campylobacter strain.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To use antibodies produced by calves in response to infection with Mannheimia haemolytica in immunoaffinity chromatography for the identification and subsequent isolation of the dominant immunogenic antigens from bacteria grown in irondeficient media.

Sample Population—Serum from 10 calves actively infected with M haemolytica.

Procedure—An outer membrane protein fraction was obtained from sonicated salt-extracted M haemolytica cells by extraction with N-lauroyl sarcosinate. The immunoglobulin fraction of serum from calves actively infected with M haemolytica was used to prepare an immunoaffinity column. The immunoaffinity column was used to isolate the dominant immunogenic proteins from the outer membrane protein fraction. The resultant immunogenic protein fraction was subjected to ELISA and immunoblot methods as well as carbohydrate quantification. Sequencing of the N-terminal was performed on the most prominent protein.

Results—5 immunogenic proteins with molecular weights of 42, 30, 24, 20, and 15 kd were isolated. The immunogenic protein fraction was found to contain 51% carbohydrate. The immunoaffinity column capacity was 1 µg of immunogenic protein/mL of gel. The N-terminal sequence of the 42-kd protein was Tyr-Gln-Thr-Tyr-Gln-Ser-X-Leu-Gln, where X could not be identified.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Immunogenic proteins were isolated by use of immunoaffinity chromatography. A substantial amount of carbohydrates was co-purified in the process. Additional experiments are needed to determine whether the carbohydrates would hinder or enhance development of vaccine preparations. This method could potentially allow a more rapid production of antigens for use in vaccines. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1634–1640)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effect of maternally derived antibodies on induction of protective immune responses against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) type II in young calves vaccinated with a modified-live bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) type I vaccine.

Design—Blinded controlled challenge study.

Animals—24 neonatal Holstein and Holstein-cross calves that were deprived of maternal colostrum and fed pooled colostrum that contained a high concentration of (n = 6) or no (18) antibodies to BVDV.

Procedure—At 10 to 14 days of age, 6 seropositive and 6 seronegative calves were given a combination vaccine containing modified-live BVDV type I. All calves were kept in isolation for 4.5 months. Six calves of the remaining 12 untreated calves were vaccinated with the same combination vaccine at approximately 4 months of age. Three weeks later, all calves were challenged intranasally with a virulent BVDV type II.

Results—Seronegative unvaccinated calves and seropositive calves that were vaccinated at 2 weeks of age developed severe disease, and 4 calves in each of these groups required euthanasia. Seronegative calves that were vaccinated at 2 weeks or 4 months of age developed only mild or no clinical signs of disease.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicate that a single dose of a modified-live BVDV type-I vaccine given at 10 to 14 days of age can protect susceptible young calves from virulent BVDV type II infection for at least 4 months, but high concentrations of BVDV-specific maternally derived antibodies can block the induction of the response. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;219:351–356)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Case Description—6 healthy dogs given human albumin solution as part of a study were examined following development of an immediate hypersensitivity reaction (1 dog) and signs suggestive of a type III hypersensitivity reaction (all 6 dogs).

Clinical Findings—All 6 dogs were healthy prior to administration of human albumin solution. One dog developed signs of an immediate hypersensitivity reaction, characterized by vomiting and facial edema, during administration of human albumin solution. All 6 dogs developed signs of a delayed adverse reaction 5 to 13 days after administration of human albumin solution. Initial clinical signs included lethargy, lameness, edema, cutaneous lesions indicative of vasculitis, vomiting, and inappetance.

Treatment and Outcome—In the dog with signs of immediate hypersensitivity, signs resolved after administration of human albumin solution was discontinued and diphenhydramine was administered. Supportive treatment was provided after dogs developed signs of a delayed adverse reaction. Four dogs recovered, but 2 dogs died despite treatment. All 6 dogs were found to have antihuman albumin antibodies. There was no evidence of contamination of the human albumin solution.

Clinical Relevance—Findings suggest that administration of human albumin solution in healthy dogs with normal serum albumin concentrations may result in signs of a type III hypersensitivity reaction.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To identify cytocidal viruses and Pasteurella spp that could be isolated from cattle involved in 2 natural outbreaks of shipping fever.

Design—105 and 120 castrated male 4- to 8-monthold feedlot cattle involved in 1997 and 1998 outbreaks, respectively.

Animals—Nasal swab specimens and blood samples were collected, and cattle were vaccinated on arrival at an order-buyer barn from 4 local auction houses. Four days later, they were transported to a feedlot, and additional nasal swab specimens and blood samples were collected. Nasal swab specimens were submitted for virus isolation and bacterial culture; blood samples were submitted for measurement of respiratory bovine coronavirus (RBCV) hemagglutinin inhibition titers.

Results—93 of 105 cattle and 106 of 120 cattle developed signs of respiratory tract disease during 1997 and 1998, respectively, and RBCV was isolated from 81 and 89 sick cattle, respectively, while at the orderbuyer's barn or the day after arrival at the feedlot. During the 1997 outbreak, bovine herpesvirus 1 was isolated from 2 cattle at the order-buyer's barn and from 5 cattle 7 and 14 days after arrival at the feedlot, and parainfluenza virus 3 was isolated from 4 cattle 14 days after arrival at the feedlot. During the 1998 outbreak, bovine herpesvirus 1 was isolated from 2 cattle at the order-buyer's barn and on arrival at the feedlot and from 5 cattle 7 and 14 days after arrival at the feedlot, and parainfluenza virus 3 was isolated from 1 animal the day of, and from 18 cattle 7 and 14 days after, arrival at the feedlot. Pasteurella spp was cultured from 4 and 6 cattle at the order-buyer's barn and from 92 and 72 cattle on arrival at the feedlot during the 1997 and 1998 outbreaks, respectively.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that RBCV may play a causative role in outbreaks of shipping fever in cattle. More than 80% of the sick cattle shed RBCV at the beginning of 2 outbreaks when the Pasteurella spp infection rate was low. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:1599–1604)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe the clinical disease, diagnostic findings, medical management, and outcome in dogs with alveolar echinococcosis (AE).

ANIMALS

4 dogs with naturally occurring AE.

PROCEDURES

Medical records were retrospectively reviewed from 2020 to 2022 to identify dogs diagnosed with AE. Signalment, case history, clinical signs, imaging and pathological laboratory findings, treatment, and clinical outcome were reported.

RESULTS

All dogs developed systemic clinical illness and weight loss. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed multifocal to coalescent cystic masses of variable size distributed throughout the liver in all cases. Evaluation of aspirated hepatic cyst contents included membranous parasite structures and calcareous corpuscles. Echinococcus multilocularis was confirmed via PCR from hepatic cyst fluid in 3 of 4 cases. Treatment included systemic benzimidazole and praziquantel administration, 1 or more instances of ultrasound-guided cyst drainage in all cases, with ethanol ablation (percutaneous aspiration-injection-reaspiration) in 2 cases, and surgical resection in 1 case. Two of 4 dogs were euthanized within 5 months of diagnosis. One of these dogs was necropsied and had nearly complete obliteration of the hepatic parenchyma by multilocular cystic masses. One dog is still alive, and 1 dog has been lost to follow-up.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

This series of cases highlighted the diagnostic findings and therapeutic intervention in 4 dogs with AE. This was the first report of medical management incorporating the percutaneous aspiration-injection-reaspiration method used in humans. Reports of canine AE are rare in the US, so this series serves to help raise awareness of hepatic AE in the northwestern US.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Immunogenicity of the lipid A component of Haemophilus somnus lipooligosaccharide in cattle and mice was examined after purification, detoxification, and covalent conjugation to a protein carrier. After 2 inoculations, a substantial antibody response was induced in most cattle to lipid A and the protein carrier. To determine whether antibodies to lipid A would be protective, 5 x 107 colonyforming units of H somnus strain 649 were administered IV to endotoxin-responsive (C3H/HeN) mice. In one study, 8 of 13 C3H/HeN mice aborted when inoculated. In contrast, abortion did not result when mice were inoculated with the same dose of an isolate of H somnus normally found in the prepuce or with the rough mutant Escherichia coli J5. In addition, endotoxin-nonresponsive (C3H/ HeJ) mice were significantly (P =0.03) more resistant to abortion by strain 649 than were C3H/HeN mice, but inoculated C3H/HeN mice were only slightly more resistant to H somnus abortion, compared with control mice. Although a large antibody response to lipid A was detected, there was no significant difference in the immunized group between mice that aborted and mice that delivered normally. Thus, lipooligosaccharide and other properties of virulent H somnus strains may contribute to abortion in mice.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Pepsinogen and protein concentrations were determined in blood samples, collected from the left gastroepiploic artery and vein, and in abomasal lymph from 15 steers naturally infected with Ostertagia ostertagi and 4 uninfected steers. In steers with type-1 ostertagiosis, the concentration gradient between the mucosal interstitium and the blood alone could account for higher than normal serum pepsinogen concentrations. High interstitial pepsinogen concentrations may have resulted from increased epithelial permeability or increased pepsinogen production and secretion. However, in steers with type-2 ostertagiosis, the concentration gradient could not entirely account for the high serum pepsinogen concentrations, suggesting that capillary permeability or surface area may have been altered. Lymphatic uptake contributed pepsinogen to the blood in all infected steers.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research