Search Results

You are looking at 31 - 40 of 463 items for :

  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All

Reptile-associated salmonellosis remains a primary concern of public health officials in the United States. 1–5 The increased numbers of reptiles imported into the United States during the 1990s and the recent findings of illegal hatchling (< 10

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To assess joint kinematics in dogs with osteoarthritis of the hip joints during walking up an incline or down a decline and over low obstacles and to compare findings with data for nonlame dogs.

Animals—10 dogs with osteoarthritis of the hip joints (mean ± SD age, 6.95 ± 3.17 years; mean body weight, 34.33 ± 13.58 kg) and 8 nonlame dogs (3.4 ± 2.0 years; 23.6 ± 4.6 kg).

Procedures—Reflective markers located on the limbs and high-speed cameras were used to record joint kinematics during walking up an incline or down a decline and over low obstacles. Maximal flexion, extension, and range of motion of the hip joints were calculated.

Results—Osteoarthritis of the hip joints reduced extension of both hip joints and flexion of the contralateral hind limb, compared with flexion of the lame hind limb, during walking down a decline. Walking up an incline resulted in decreased extension of the stifle joint in both hind limbs of osteoarthritic dogs; extension was significantly decreased for the lame hind limb. During walking over low obstacles, maximal flexion of the stifle joint was increased significantly for the contralateral hind limb. Maximal flexion was increased in both tarsal joints.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Osteoarthritis of the hip joints led to complex changes in the gait of dogs, which involved more joints than the affected hip joint alone. Each exercise had specific effects on joint kinematics that must be considered when planning a rehabilitation program.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To identify and characterize blood cells from free-ranging Hawaiian green turtles, Chelonia mydas.

Sample Population

26 green turtles from Puako on the island of Hawaii and Kaneohe Bay on the island of Oahu.

Procedure

Blood was examined, using light and electron microscopy and cytochemical stains that included benzidine peroxidase, chloroacetate esterase, alpha naphthyl butyrate esterase, acid phosphatase, Sudan black B, periodic acid-Schiff, and toluidine blue.

Results

6 types of WBC were identified: lymphocytes, monocytes, thrombocytes, heterophils, basophils, and eosinophils (small and large). Morphologic characteristics of mononuclear cells and most granulocytes were similar to those of cells from other reptiles except that green turtles have both large and small eosinophils.

Conclusions

Our classification of green turtle blood cells clarifies improper nomenclature reported previously and provides a reference for future hematologic studies in this species. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:1252–1257)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Activities of diagnostically important enzymes were measured in serum and lysates of liver, kidney, skeletal muscle, heart, intestine, lung, and pancreatic tissues from wild-caught yellow rat snakes, Elaphe obsoleta quadrivitatta. All samples were analyzed for alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase (ld), aspartate transaminase (ast), alanine transaminase, γ-glutamyltransferase, and creatine kinase (ck) activities. The major enzyme activities found in the liver were ld and ast. The kidney had moderate activities of ld, ast, alanine transaminase, and ck. Skeletal muscle and heart contained high ck activity. Intestine, lung, and pancreas had low activities for most enzymes analyzed. Little to no γ-glutamyltransferase activity was found in serum or tissues analyzed. Serum enzyme activities in yellow rat snakes were similar to those described for other reptile species, except for serum ck activity, which was increased in rat snakes.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To validate a novel high-sensitivity radioimmunoassay (RIA) procedure developed to accurately measure the relatively low serum total thyroxine (T4) concentrations of birds and reptiles and to establish initial reference ranges for T4 concentration in selected species of psittacine birds and snakes.

Animals—56 healthy nonmolting adult psittacine birds representing 6 species and 42 captive snakes representing 4 species.

Procedure—A solid-phase RIA designed to measure free T4 concentrations in dialysates of human serum samples was used without dialysis to evaluate total T4 concentration in treated samples obtained from birds and reptiles. Serum T4 binding components were removed to allow assay of undialyzed samples. Assay validation was assessed by determining recovery of expected amounts of T4 in treated samples that were serially diluted or to which T4 was added. Intra- and interassay coefficient of variation (CV) was determined.

Results—Mean recovery of T4 added at 4 concentrations ranged from 84.9 to 115.0% and 95.8 to 119.4% in snakes and birds, respectively. Intra- and interassay CV was 3.8 and 11.3%, respectively. Serum total T4 concentrations for 5 species of birds ranged from 2.02 to 7.68 nmol/L but ranged from 3.17 to 142 nmol/L for blue-fronted Amazon parrots; concentrations ranged from 0.21 to 6.06 nmol/L for the 4 species of snakes.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—This new RIA method provides a commercially available, accurate, and sensitive method for measurement of the relatively low serum T4 concentrations of birds and snakes. Initial ranges for the species evaluated were established. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1750–1767)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane in mechanically ventilated Dumeril monitors (Varanus dumerili).

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—10 healthy adult Dumeril monitors.

Procedure—Anesthesia was induced with isoflurane in oxygen delivered through a face mask. Monitors were endotracheally intubated, and end-tidal and inspired isoflurane concentrations were continuously measured. After equilibration at an end-tidal-toinspired isoflurane concentration ratio of > 0.9 for 20 minutes, an electrical stimulus (50 Hz, 50 V) was delivered to the ventral aspect of the tail for up to 1 minute and the monitor was observed for purposeful movement. End-tidal isoflurane concentration was then decreased by 10%, and equilibration and stimulation were repeated. The MAC was calculated as the mean of the lowest end-tidal isoflurane concentration that prevented positive response and the highest concentration that allowed response. A blood sample for blood gas analysis was collected from the tail vein at the beginning and end of the anesthetic period.

Results—Mean ± SD MAC of isoflurane was 1.54 ± 0.17%. Mean heart rates at the upper and lower MAC values were 32.4 ± 3 beats/min and 34 ± 4.5 beats/min, respectively. During the experiment, Paco2 decreased significantly from 43.1 mm Hg to 27.9 mm Hg and blood pH and HCO3 concentration increased significantly from 7.33 to 7.64 and from 25.3 to 32.9 mmol/L, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The MAC of isoflurane in Dumeril monitors was similar to that reported in mammals but lower than values reported in other reptiles. This difference may be reflective of the more advanced cardiovascular physiologic features of monitor lizards. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005; 226:1098–1101)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To provide a video tutorial describing intraperitoneal (IP) and intracoelomic (IC) therapeutics (IP/IC fluid therapy, euthanasia, direct peritoneal resuscitation).

ANIMALS

Dogs, cats, and exotic pets.

METHODS

Peritoneal and coelomic centesis allows for delivery of fluids or to perform euthanasia. The peritoneal and coelomic membranes contain a vast network of capillaries and lymphatics that allow absorption of fluids and blood products. Needles are inserted aseptically IP or IC at species-specific locations to avoid iatrogenic damage. In mammals, the needle is inserted in a periumbilical location at a 1- to 2-cm radius from the umbilicus, while the needle is inserted into the ventral inguinal fossa in chelonians and lateroventrally in lizards and snakes. Direct peritoneal resuscitation is a human technique in which a dextrose/electrolyte solution infused IP reduces ischemia-reperfusion injury, edema, and tissue necrosis to improve mortality in patients with diseases like shock and sepsis or who require acute abdominal surgery.

RESULTS

Isotonic crystalloids are given IP/IC at 10- to 20-mL/kg doses (smaller volumes in reptiles) and blood products at standard calculated doses. Sodium pentobarbital without phenytoin (3 mL/4.5 kg) is used for IP/IC euthanasia.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Being aware of multiple routes for fluid and blood product administration allows treatment in animals for which intravenous or intraosseous catheterization is undesirable or impossible. While intravenous or intraosseous routes are always preferred, especially for resuscitation, familiarity with locations for IP/IC fluid and euthanasia is useful. Techniques like direct peritoneal resuscitation are not currently used in animals but might be translated to veterinary cases in the future.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate light microscopic, cytochemical, and ultrastructural characteristics of blood cells from eastern diamondback rattlesnakes.

Animals

10 healthy snakes.

Procedure

Various stains, including Wright-Giemsa, benzidine peroxidase, Sudan black B, chloroacetate esterase, α-naphthyl butyrate esterase, acid phosphatase, leukocyte alkaline phosphatase, periodic acid-Schiff with diastase, and toluidine blue, were used to stain leukocytes differentially on multiple blood smears. Electron microscopy also was performed.

Results

Lymphocytes were the most commonly observed leukocyte and could be distinguished from thrombocytes, using periodic acid-Schiff stain with diastase. Azurophils also were commonly observed; their granules stained with peroxidase. Eosinophils were not identified; however, 2 morphologic variations of heterophils were seen in the blood of all snakes and were considered the same cell type at different stages of cytoplasmic granule development. Heterophil granules were better preserved, using a one-step Wright-Giemsa method that did not require alcohol fixation prior to staining. Degranulated heterophils were observed in all preparations.

Conclusions

Most leukocytes of eastern diamond-back rattlesnakes can be identified easily on Wright-Giemsa-stained preparations. However, hematologic stains that do not require alcohol fixing prior to staining may be preferred for leukocyte evaluation in certain reptiles. A limited degree of heterophil maturation may continue in the blood of healthy snakes. This, along with degranulation of heterophils, may result in a variable staining pattern in this cell type, regardless of the stain used.

Clinical Relevance

Results provide baseline data for use in hematologic testing in diagnosis of disease and monitoring of treatment of sick or injured snakes. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:507-514)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Salmonellosis is an important zoonotic infection often associated with contact between pet reptiles and humans in the United States. 1 The CDC estimates that the fecal carriage rate of Salmonella spp in pet reptiles is > 90% and that there are

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Author:

that develops as a result of nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism is a commonly diagnosed metabolic bone disease in iguanas. Nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism can affect mammals, birds, and reptiles. In lizards, nutritional secondary

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association