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,684 prescriptions (6.8% of all prescriptions). The most frequently prescribed antimicrobial was enrofloxacin, with 854 dispensations (31.8% of antimicrobial prescriptions), followed by gentamicin (570 [21.2%]), ceftiofur (388 [14.5%]), and penicillin (220 [8

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

antimicrobial susceptibility assay by use of the MIC susceptibility system. a The 17 antimicrobial agents belonged to 9 classes: penicillins (ampicillin and penicillin), cephalosporins (ceftiofur), aminoglycosides (gentamicin, neomycin, and spectinomycin

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

infections in humans. 2 Long-term parenteral administration of clindamycin k (17 to 21 mg/kg [7.7 to 9.5 mg/lb], IV, q 12 h for 40 days) and benzathine penicillin G l (80,000 U/kg [36,364 U/lb], SC, q 12 h for 150 days) was initiated. Intravenous

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

foal was treated with a balanced electrolyte solution (3.3 mL/kg/h [1.5 mL/lb/h], IV), potassium penicillin (40,000 U/kg [18,200 U/lb], IV, q 6 h), gentamicin (6.6 mg/kg [3 mg/lb], IV, q 24 h), ketoprofen (2.2 mg/kg [1 mg/lb], IV, q 12 h), and

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

penicillin V potassium (22,000 U/kg [10,000 U/lb], IV, q 6 h) was initiated. The horse was sedated with xylazine hydrochloride (1 mg/kg, IV). Anesthesia was induced by administration of ketamine hydrochloride (2.2 mg/kg [1 mg/lb], IV) and diazepam (0.1 mg

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

administered along with aminocaproic acid (40 mg/kg, IV, slow bolus over 30 minutes followed by 20 mg/kg, IV, q 6 h), potassium penicillin (22,000 IU/kg, IV, q 6 h), gentamicin (6.6 mg/kg, IV, q 24 h), and omeprazole (4 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h). The antimicrobial

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
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removes many of the other common antimicrobial agents from consideration. 35 , 36 , 40 Methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus spp is caused by the acquisition of the mecA gene, which encodes an altered penicillin-binding protein (PBP-2a). Although

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To evaluate the efficacy of parenteral administration of procaine penicillin G, spiramycin, or enrofloxacin in the treatment of clinical mastitis in lactating cows.

Design

Noncontrolled, clinical retrospective study.

Animals

487 cows with mastitis involving 543 quarters.

Procedure

Clinical signs, histories, and results of bacteriologic examination, somatic cell count, and N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase activity of milk samples taken before and 3 to 4 weeks after treatment were retrieved from hospital records. Cows treated parenterally with procaine penicillin G, spiramycin, or enrofloxacin for 3 to 5 days were included. Supportive treatment alone was given to 35 cows infected with Escherichia coli. Factors possibly affecting outcome were analyzed, using ANOVA, correlation analyses, and the Mann-Whitney test. χ2 Test was used to compare bacteriologic cure rates.

Results

Bacteriologic cure rates for mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci, and streptococci were 34, 76, and 65%, respectively. Cure rates in cows in their first lactation and infected with S aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci were significantly higher than those for older cows. In cows with mastitis caused by E coli, the cure rate was 74% for those treated with penicillin G and 71% for those not treated with antimicrobials. High N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase activity in milk samples obtained at initial examination indicated a poor outcome in S aureus and streptococcal mastitis. Cows infected in the early lactation period had more severe inflammatory responses and clinical signs if infected with coagulase-negative staphylococci and coliforms.

Clinical Implications

3 to 5 days of treatment with parenterally administered penicillin G for clinical mastitis caused by penicillin-susceptible S aureus strains is efficacious in young cows. Parenteral administration of spiramycin or enrofloxacin does not give satisfactory results in mastitis caused by penicillin-resistant S aureus. Use of antimicrobials in the treatment of mastitis caused by coliform bacteria is questionable. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998; 212:407-412)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To determine whether combined parenteral and oral administration of oxytetracycline would ameliorate a herd outbreak of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) and to compare efficacy of this regimen with that of subconjunctival administration of procaine penicillin G.

Design

Randomized field trial.

Animals

119 Hereford calves in a herd undergoing a naturally occurring outbreak of IBK.

Procedure

Calves were randomly assigned to 1 of the following 3 groups: oxytetracycline treatment, procaine penicillin G treatment, and control. After initial treatment, calves were examined 3 times/wk for 7 weeks. The surface area of all corneal ulcers was measured during each examination. Ocular secretions were collected from all calves at least weekly and were tested for Moraxella bovis.

Results

Calves treated with oxytetracycline had a lower prevalence of IBK than did calves treated with procaine penicillin G or control calves and required fewer additional treatments than did calves treated with procaine penicillin G. Mean time for healing of corneal ulcers was significantly less for calves that received oxytetracycline or procaine penicillin G than for control calves. Calves treated with oxytetracycline developed fewer corneal ulcers and fewer recurrent ulcers than did calves in the other groups. Moraxella bovis was isolated less often from ocular secretions collected from calves in the oxytetracycline group than from calves in the other groups.

Clinical Implications

Combined parenteral and oral administration of oxytetracycline appears to be an effective method of reducing severity of a herd outbreak of IBK and may be superior to treatment of affected animals with procaine penicillin G. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998; 212:560-563)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

inhibatory concentration PBP2a Penicillin-binding protein 2a PFGE Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis PFP Pulsed-field profile a. Microbank, ProLab Diagnostics, Austin, Tex. b. MicroScan Walkaway 40 PC20 gram-positive combo-panel, Dade Behring

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research