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Objective

To classify histologic type and morphology of primary lung tumors in cats, to describe clinical findings in these cats, and to determine whether clinical findings were associated with histologic type or morphology.

Design

Retrospective study.

Animals

86 cats with histologically confirmed primary lung tumors.

Procedure

Medical records for cats treated between 1979 and 1994 at any of 14 participating veterinary referral hospitals were reviewed.

Results

Weight loss, lethargy, and dyspnea were the most common clinical signs. Solitary or multiple pulmonary masses were seen on radiographs from 53 of 79 cats; effusion was seen on radiographs from the other 26. In 45 cats, tumors involved a single lung lobe. Caudal lung lobes were more commonly affected than were cranial lung lobes. Sixty-five cats had metastases. Tumors were classified as bronchial (n = 65), bronchiolar-alveolar (9), or other (12) and as poorly differentiated (59), moderately differentiated (20), or well differentiated (7). Breed, age, sex, weight, clinical signs, duration of clinical signs, and radiographic findings were not associated with histologic type or morphology.

Clinical Implications

To identify possible occult primary lung tumors, thoracic radiography should be performed on cats with clinical signs of long duration, including weight loss, lethargy, and dyspnea. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;211:1257–1260)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare the findings of light microscopic evaluation of routine unstained wet-mounted preparations and air-dried, modified Wright-stained preparations of urine sediment with results of quantitative aerobic bacteriologic culture of urine.

Design—Masked prospective study.

Sample Population—459 urine samples collected by cystocentesis from 441 dogs.

Procedure—Urinalyses and quantitative bacteriologic cultures of urine were performed. Unstained wetmounted preparations and air-dried, modified Wrightstained urine sediment preparations were examined by light microscopy for the presence of bacteria.

Results—Compared with results of quantitative bacteriologic culture, routine unstained preparations and modified Wright-stained preparations had sensitivities of 82.4% and 93.2%, specificities of 76.4% and 99.0%, positive predictive values of 40.1% and 94.5%, negative predictive values of 95.8% and 98.7%, and test efficiencies of 77.3% and 98.0%, respectively. Compared with 74 samples that yielded growth on bacteriologic culture, the routine unstained method had concordance and misclassification rates of 39.2% and 60.8%, respectively, whereas the Wright-stained method had concordance and misclassification rates of 78.4% and 21.6%, respectively. Significant associations between each of occult blood in urine, pyuria, female sex, and lower urine specific gravity with bacteriuria detected by Wright-stained sediment examination and quantitative bacteriologic culture of urine were identified.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Examination of modified Wright-stained preparations of urine sediment appeared to be a rapid, cost effective method that significantly improved the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and test efficiency of light microscopic detection of bacteriuria, compared with that of the routine unstained method. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004; 224:1282–1289)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Objective

To determine the incidence of gastrointestinal (GI) tract bleeding in dogs undergoing spinal surgery with adjunct corticosteroid treatment, and to determine the protective efficacy of cimetidine, sucralfate, and misoprostol against such bleeding in these dogs.

Animals

40 dogs that underwent spinal surgery.

Procedures

Myelography and surgery were performed on the first or second day of hospitalization. Methylprednisolone sodium succinate was given at a dosage of 30 mg/kg of body weight prior to myelography, followed by a second full or half dose 2 to 4 hours later at clinician discretion. Spinal surgery was performed in conventional manner, postoperative administration of analgesics was done, and dogs were fed a diet lacking red meat. Dogs were assigned at random to 1 of the 3 treatment groups or to the control group. Dogs of the treatment groups received cimetidine, sucralfate, or misoprostol. Physical examination and determination of PCV and serum total protein values were performed daily. A fecal sample was examined daily for gross and occult blood.

Results

36 of 40 dogs had GI tract bleeding during a hospitalization period of 3 to 6 days. There was no significant difference in development of bleeding between the control group and any of the treatment groups.

Conclusions

Gastrointestinal tract bleeding occurred in 90% of dogs undergoing spinal surgery combined with administration of methylprednisilone sodium succinate, a higher rate than that found in previous studies. This bleeding was not life-threatening. Prophylactic benefit from any of the GI protectants tested was not found. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:1320–1323)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To characterize 2 strains of Haemobartonella felis by use of molecular techniques.

Animals

35 specific-pathogen-free cats, 6 months to 4 years old.

Procedure

Intraperitoneal or IV inoculation with blood containing H felis small form (Hfsm, 18 cats) or H felis large form (Hflg, 11 cats); 6 cats were uninfected controls. Hfsm was evaluated for capability to cross-protect against the more virulent Hflg. Morphology of both strains was compared by light microscopy of Wright-Giemsa-stained blood smears, and the 16S rRNA genes were sequenced.

Results

Infection with Hflg induced signs of depression, fever, and severe macrocytic normochromic anemia with nucleated erythrocytes. More than 95% of erythrocytes were parasitized. Inoculation with Hfsm and uninfected control blood induced mild or no clinical signs and no hematologic abnormalities. Anti-Hfelis lgG was first detected on postinoculation day (PID) 21, and increased to maximal titer of 400 by PID 28. Reactivated infection was observed in 8 of 29 cats (4 Hfsm and 4 Hflg), with 5% parasitized erythrocytes during the later attack. On PID 8, Hflg-inoculated cats had positive results of polymerase chain reaction analysis (PCR) that persisted until cats were treated with doxycycline or oxytetracycline; Hfsm-inoculated cats had positive PCR results that persisted for duration of observation (3 months).

Conclusions

Genetically and morphologically distinct strains of H felis infect cats in the field. The level of genetic difference suggested that these strains may be different species or genera.

Clinical Relevance

PCR is a critical diagnostic aid to detect occult Haemobartonella spp infection, as well as response to treatment and clearance of the organism. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:1581-1588)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Twenty-four healthy cats underwent bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage to determine the normal cytologic environment of the lower respiratory tract of cats. Initial screening to ensure the health of the study population included complete histories, physical examinations, thoracic radiography, cbc, serologic tests for feline leukemia virus, feline immunodeficiency virus, and occult heartworm, and sugar and Baermann fecal flotation. In 18 cats, protected catheter brush samples of airway secretions from the lavaged lung segment were taken for culture of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and mycoplasma. Bronchial lavage fluid (5 sequential 10-ml aliquots of normal saline solution) was pooled and filtered with cotton gauze. The unspun sample was used for determination of a total nucleated cell count. Lavage fluid was cytocentrifuged and 500 cells/slide were scored for determination of the cellular differential. Activity of lactate dehydrogenase and concentrations of total protein and IgG within the supernatant were measured, and assays were performed to detect the presence of IgA and IgM. Complete histologic evaluation of the lavaged lung of each of 6 random-source cats was performed after differential cell counting revealed 18% eosinophils within bronchoalveolar lavage fluid recovered from this group.

Alveolar macrophages were the predominant cells encountered; however, a quarter of all cells recovered were eosinophils. A significant relationship was not found between the abundance of eosinophils in the lavage fluid, and either isolation of aerobic bacteria, high total nucleated cell counts, total protein concentrations, or activity of lactate dehydrogenase. Histologic evaluation of the lungs of 5 of 6 random-source cats revealed normal lungs in 2 cats, and minimal abnormal change in 3 others. Evaluation of the lungs from 1 random source cat revealed acute, mild eosinophilic bronchiolitis. We conclude that large numbers of eosinophils may be retrieved from the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of healthy cats.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

The clinicopathologic manifestations of bovid herpesvirus-4 (bhv-4; FCAHV strain)-induced infection of the lower portion of the urinary tract were characterized in 12 adult neutered male and 6 female specific-pathogen-free cats, and were compared with those in 12 neutered male control cats. Six neutered male and 6 female cats were given immunosuppressive doses of methylprednisolone acetate prior to inoculation of their urinary bladders with bhv-4. Six neutered male control cats were given immunosuppressive doses of methylprednisolone acetate prior to inoculation of their urinary bladders with uninfected tissue culture control inoculum. Six additional neutered male control cats were exposed only to uninfected tissue culture control inoculum. All cats were observed for 90 days following inoculation. Dysuria and gross hematuria were observed in only 1 bhv-4-exposed cat. Radiographic abnormalities of the lower portion of the urinary tract were not observed. Microscopic hematuria, crystalluria, and lipiduria were identified with similar frequency in bhv-4-exposed and control cats. Results of urine culturing for bacteria, mycoplasma, ureaplasma, and viruses were negative. Viruses were not isolated from blood leukocytes collected from exposed or control cats. Three to 6 weeks after inoculation, high concentrations of bhv-4 serum antibodies were detected in all exposed cats by an indirect fluorescent antibody test.

Light microscopic examination of the urinary tract revealed multifocal lymphoid cystitis in 2 bhv-4-exposed cats. Except for suppurative bronchitis in 1 bhv-4-exposed cat given glucocorticoids, morphologic differences in urinary and extraurinary tissues were not observed. In urinary bladder tissue collected 90 days after inoculation, bhv-4 was reisolated from urinary bladder explants of all but 1 exposed cat. Virus was also isolated from a kidney explant of 1 exposed male cat, and spleen cell cocultures of 1 exposed female cat given glucocorticoids.

Bovid herpesvirus-4 (FCAHV strain) caused persistent urinary tract infections in male and female specific-pathogen-free cats. Detection of occult bhv-4 infection required isolation of virus from tissues by explantation, or demonstration of specific bhv-4 antibodies by immunofluorescent techniques. Administration of glucocorticoids prior to inoculation did not enhance morbidity associated with bhv-4 urinary tract infection. Further investigations are needed to determine the pathogenic role of bhv-4 in noninduced feline lower urinary tract disease.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

this breed is an inherited, slowly progressive, primary myocardial disease with a unique disease progression that typically has a late onset. 1,4–8 The rate of progression of occult DCM to overt DCM is generally slow, but progression rapidly increases

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

breeds identified a mean of 2 VPCs/24 h. None of the dogs in that study had more than 24 VPCs/24 h. Therefore, it may be more likely that dogs in the present study that had > 91 VPCs/24 h may have had an occult form of ARVC or some other myocardial or

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

presenting clinical signs with no appreciable signal abnormalities on conventional MRI sequences would include occult cerebrovascular accidents (such as an occult ischemic infarct or transient ischemic attacks), occult infectious or inflammatory etiologies

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

that CT was superior to plain radiography for identification of skeletal pelvic trauma, but no femoral head fractures were found during the study. Magnetic resonance imaging may also be used to detect occult hip joint fractures, but 1 human study 5

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association