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Summary

Microscopic examination of the nasal mucosa of clinically normal specific-pathogen-free pigs and of toxicogenic type-D Pasteurella multocida toxin challenge-exposed_ specific-pathogen-free pigs indicated that the surface epithelium in pigs of both groups was microscopically normal; erosions or appreciable inflammatory changes were not evident. In pigs of both groups and in all 3 regions of the nasal cavity, the endothelial lining of all blood vessels appeared normal without detectable changes to the walls at postinoculation day 10. Vascular injury in the cartilage or the bone was not discernible in control or challenge-exposed pigs.

There were marked differences in the osseous structures of the conchae when the 2 groups were compared. In control pigs, active bone formation and remodeling were observed, and the septal cartilage was normal. In toxin challenge-exposed pigs, there likewise was normal bone formation and remodeling in the vestibular region, and the septal cartilage was normal. In marked contrast, conspicuous changes were observed in the osseous core of the conchae of the respiratory and, sometimes, the olfactory regions. These changes consisted of bone necrosis and resorption by large numbers of osteoclasts with variable replacement by dense mesenchymal stroma, which resulted in conchal atrophy. In the absence of any discernible damage or injury (angiopathy) to the nasal vessels, it appears that the action of the dermonecrotoxin of P multocida serotype D is on the most active osteoblasts and the associated organic matrix of the bone, with subsequent disruption of normal bone formation and remodeling of the nasal conchae.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine concentrations of IgA and IgG subclasses in serum, colostrum, milk, and nasal wash samples of adult horses and foals.

Animals—Seven 2-year-old Welsh ponies, 27 adult mixed-breed horses, and 5 Quarter Horse mares and their foals.

Procedure—Serum was obtained from ponies and adult horses. Colostrum and milk were obtained from mares and serum and nasal wash samples from their foals immediately after parturition and on days 1, 7, 14, 28, 42, and 63. Nasal wash samples were also obtained from 23 adult horses. Concentrations of immunoglobulins were determined by use of inhibition ELISA. To determine transfer of maternal isotypes to foals, concentrations in colostrum and milk were compared with those in foal serum. Serum half-lives of isotypes in foals were also determined.

Results—IgGb was the most abundant isotype in serum and colostrum from adult horses, whereas IgA was the predominant isotype in milk. The major isotype in nasal secretions of adult horses and foals ≥ 28 days old was IgA, but IgGa and IgGb were the major isotypes in nasal secretions of foals ≤ 14 days old. Serum half lives of IgGa, IgGb, IgG(T), and IgA in foals were 17.6, 32, 21, and 3.4 days, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The early immunoglobulin repertoire of neonatal foals comprised IgGa, IgG(T), and IgA; endogenous synthesis of IgGb could not be detected until 63 days after birth. The restricted repertoire of immunoglobulins in foals may influence humoral immune responses to vaccination. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1099–1105)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine radiographic, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and rhinoscopic features of nasal aspergillosis in dogs.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—15 client-owned dogs.

Procedure—All dogs had clinical signs of chronic nasal disease; the diagnosis of nasal aspergillosis was made on the basis of positive results for at least 2 diagnostic tests (serology, cytology, histology, or fungal culture) and detection of typical intrasinusal and intranasal fungal colonies and turbinate destruction via rhinoscopy. Radiography, MRI, and CT were performed under general anesthesia. Rhinoscopy was repeated to evaluate lesions and initiate treatment. Findings of radiography, MRI, CT, and rhinoscopy were compared.

Results—MRI and CT revealed lesions suggestive of nasal aspergillosis more frequently than did radiography. Computed tomography was the best technique for detection of cortical bone lesions; the nature of abnormal soft tissue, however, could not be identified. Magnetic resonance imaging allowed evaluation of lesions of the frontal bone and was especially useful for differentiating between a thickened mucosa and secretions or fungal colonies; however, fungal colonies could not be differentiated from secretions. Rhinoscopy allowed identification of the nature of intranasal and intrasinusal soft tissue but was not as useful as CT and MRI for defining the extent of lesions and provided no information regarding bone lesions.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The value of CT and MRI for diagnosis of nasal aspergillosis was similar and greater than that of radiography. Rhinoscopy is necessary because it is the only technique that allows direct visualization of fungal colonies. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:1703–1712)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effects of an external nasal dilator strip on cytologic characteristics of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid in racing Thoroughbreds.

Design—Clinical trial.

Animals—23 Thoroughbred racehorses in active training.

Procedure—Each horse raced on 2 occasions: once while wearing an external nasal dilator strip and once while not. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed 12 to 18 hours after each race, and BAL fluid was analyzed for RBC and leukocyte counts and hemosiderin content.

Results—Mean ± SEM count of RBCs in BAL fluid when horses raced without the nasal dilator strip (84.6 ± 27.5 cells/µL) was not significantly different from count when they raced with it (41.7 ± 12.2 cells/µL). Horses were grouped as having mild or severe bleeding on the basis of RBC count in BAL fluid after horses raced without the nasal dilator strip. Mean count when horses with severe bleeding raced without the nasal dilator strip (271.0 ± 63.7 cells/µL) was significantly higher than mean count when these horses raced with the strip (93.8 ± 37.6 cells/µL). Mean count of lymphocytes in BAL fluid was significantly lower after horses raced with the external nasal dilator strip.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that use of an external nasal dilator strip in Thoroughbred racehorses may decrease pulmonary bleeding, particularly in horses with severe exerciseinduced pulmonary hemorrhage. ( J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;224:558–561)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary:

Computed tomography was evaluated as a noninvasive technique for the diagnosis of chronic nasal disease in dogs. Computed tomographic images, radiographs, and histopathologic findings were compared in 11 dogs with chronic nasal disease. Definitive diagnosis was made following traumatic nasal flush, exploratory surgery, or necropsy. The study included 8 dogs with intranasal tumors, 2 dogs with bacterial rhinitis (Pasteurella sp), and 1 dog with mycotic rhinitis (Aspergillus sp).

Computed tomography was superior to radiography in defining the extent of the disease process and in differentiating infectious rhinitis from nasal neoplasms. It defined lesions in the palate, nasopharyngeal meatus, maxillary sinus, caudal ethmoturbinates, and periorbital tissues that were difficult to demonstrate by use of conventional radiography. Tumors appeared as space-occupying lesions that obliterated the turbinates, caused deviation of the nasal septum, and eroded bone. Rhinitis appeared as a cavitating lesion that spared the paranasal sinuses, thickened and distorted the turbinates, and widened the meatus. Although morphologically distinct on computed tomographic images, infectious rhinitis and nasal neoplasms could not be differentiated by attenuation measurements or degree of contrast enhancement.

Computed tomography appeared to be a reliable, noninvasive technique for the diagnosis of chronic nasal disease in dogs, and a promising alternative to diagnostic techniques currently in use.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To characterize respiratory reflexes elicited by nasal administration of sevoflurane (Sevo), isoflurane (Iso), or halothane (Hal) in anesthetized dogs.

Animals—8 healthy Beagles.

Procedure—A permanent tracheostomy was created in each dog. Two to 3 weeks later, dogs were anesthetized by IV administration of thiopental and α-chloralose. Nasal passages were isolated such that inhalant anesthetics could be administered to the nasal passages while the dogs were breathing 100% O2 via the tracheostomy. Respiratory reflexes in response to administration of each anesthetic at 1.2 and 2.4 times the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) and the full vaporizer setting (5%) were recorded. Reflexes in response to administration of 5% of each anesthetic also were recorded following administration of lidocaine to the nasal passages.

Results—Nasal administration of Sevo, Iso, and Hal induced an immediate ventilatory response characterized by a dose-dependent increase in expiratory time and a resulting decrease in expired volume per unit of time. All anesthetics had a significant effect, but for Sevo, the changes were smaller in magnitude. Responses to administration of each anesthetic were attenuated by administration of lidocaine to the nasal passages.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Nasal administration of Sevo at concentrations generally used for mask induction of anesthesia induced milder reflex inhibition of breathing, presumably via afferent neurons in the nasal passages, than that of Iso or Hal. Respiratory reflexes attributable to stimulation of the nasal passages may contribute to speed of onset and could promote a smoother induction with Sevo, compared with Iso or Hal. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:311–319)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Ninety cats were irradiated for treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the nasal plane. The 1- and 5-year progression-free survival rates were 60.1 ± 5.5% and 10.3 ± 6.2%, respectively. Analysis of progression-free survival times revealed that clinical stage and tumor proliferative fraction (estimated by the use of a proliferating cell nuclear-antigen immunohistochemical method) had significant prognostic value. Conversely, coat color, presence of multiple facial carcinomas, histologic grade, and feline immunodeficiency virus infection status were not found to have prognostic value. Acute radiation reactions were mild and self-limiting. Severe chronic radiation reactions were more frequent in cats infected with feline immunodeficiency virus. Results of the study indicated that cats with squamous cell carcinoma of the nasal plane benefit from radiotherapy and that treatment might be improved by increasing the radiation dose as well as altering the dose-fractionation scheme.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To assess fecal and nasal shedding patterns of bovine torovirus (BoTV) in cattle at time of arrival and periodically throughout the first 21 days after arrival at a feedlot.

Animals—57 steers.

Procedure—Fecal and nasal-swab samples collected on days 0, 4, 14, and 21 after arrival were tested for BoTV, using ELISA. A subset of samples from calves testing positive and negative for BoTV was analyzed, using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Paired serum samples were collected on days 0 and 21 and tested for BoTV antibodies, using a hemagglutination inhibition assay.

Results—Overall rate of fecal shedding of BoTV was 21 of 57 (37%) by ELISA and 40 of 42 (95%) by RT-PCR with peak shedding on day 4. Diarrhea was more common in calves shedding BoTV than those not shedding the virus (odds ratio, 1.72). Overall rate of nasal shedding of BoTV was 15 of 57 (26%) by ELISA and 42 of 42 (100%) by RT-PCR, with peak shedding on day 0. Specificity of the RT-PCR product was confirmed by sequence analysis. Approximately 93% of the calves seroconverted to BoTV (> 4-fold increase in titer). Differences were not detected between calves shedding BoTV and nonshedders in relation to disease and treatments, perhaps because of the low number of cattle in the study.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—This study confirmed BoTV infections in feedlot cattle, including BoTV antigen and viral RNA in nasal secretions, and the shedding pattern during the first 21 days after arrival in a feedlot. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:342–348).

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To evaluate agreement between trained veterinarians and a reference inspector when recording gross lesions of lungs, livers, and nasal turbinates of pigs.

Design

Prospective study.

Sample Population

10 veterinarians in workshop 1 and 11 veterinarians in workshop 2.

Procedure

Analysis of data obtained from 2 workshops in which veterinarians evaluated fresh tissues (30 lungs and 30 livers) and 100 slides of nasal turbinates previously evaluated by the reference inspector. Veterinarians independently recorded observations of gross lesions. Agreement was evaluated by percentage agreement, kappa or weighted kappa, and sensitivity and specificity, where relevant.

Results

Agreement between veterinarians and the reference inspector was excellent for detecting consolidation of lung lobes typical of enzootic pneumonia (κ = 0.81 and 0.87 for workshops 1 and 2, respectively) and white spots on livers (κ = 0.76 and 0.78). Estimates of the extent of consolidation as a proportion of lung volume also agreed closely with reference values. Agreement was closer for veterinarians who had undergone repeated training and evaluation. Agreement was good for detecting nasal turbinate atrophy (weighted κ = 0.63 and 0.68) and was poorest for detecting lesions of pleuritis (κ = 0.39 and 0.44).

Clinical Implications

For most of the lesions evaluated, acceptable levels of agreement with reference scores were achieved after training of veterinarians to use standardized methods to record gross lesions. Standardization of veterinarians’ recordings of gross lesions should improve the reliability and usefulness of data collected by inspection of slaughtered pigs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;209:823–826)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Rapid and accurate detection of a virus in a population is a critical factor in the eventual treatment and/or control of the virus. In this study, we examined use of the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) to detect swine influenza virus in nasal swab specimens from infected pigs. This approach was first standardized, using viral rna purified by guanidinium/phenol-chloroform extraction and placed in the same transport medium as the swabs. By using highly conserved primers for the swine H1 hemagglutinin, we amplified a 591-base pair fragment that was analyzed by use of agarose gel electrophoresis, Southern blot, and dna sequencing.

To evaluate pcr as a potential diagnostic tool for detection of swine influenza virus infection, we obtained nasal swab specimens from experimentally infected pigs. Amplification by pcr and reamplification of extracted samples with internal primers yielded detectable bands for an amount of virus less than that required to infect embryonating chicken eggs. We also tested swab specimens from pigs involved in 3 separate, natural episodes of swine influenza. These swab specimens were extracted, amplified and reamplified, producing visible bands on the gel and in Southern blots. We performed Southern blot analyses on all pcr products, to confirm that they were from viral H1 rna. We also cloned and sequenced a 591-base pair product from 1 specimen and found that it was 100% identical to the hemagglutinin gene sequence of A/Sw/Ind/1726/88. Results indicate that pcr can be used to detect swine influenza virus, even in nasal swab specimens, the specimen typically collected for diagnosis of virus infection.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research