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Abstract

Objective

To evaluate response of various cardiovascular variables after administration of incremental doses of dobutamine in healthy conscious dogs, using standardized dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE).

Animals

8 healthy dogs.

Procedure

A DSE was performed twice on each dog within 24 hours. Dobutamine was infused at a rate of 12.5 to 42.5 μg/kg/min, using incremental increases of 10 μg/kg/min. Doppler sphygmomanometry, electrocardiography, and echocardiography were performed. Left ventricular size, global ventricular performance, and left ventricular systolic myocardial function were measured by means of echocardiography.

Results

At the highest dosage, dobutamine induced an increase of 20 ± 3% and 109 ± 12% in systolic blood pressure and cardiac index, respectively. The latter was associated with a significant increase in heart rate and stroke index. Fractional shortening of the left ventricle, fractional thickening of the left ventricular free wall and interventricular septum, ejection fraction, and mean velocity of fiber shortening had a progressive and significant increase during dobutamine infusion. Preejection period and left ventricular ejection time had a progressive and significative decrease during the stress test.

Conclusions

The technique used was feasable, safe, and repeatable in healthy conscious dogs. Control values were determined.

Clinical Relevance

Data for these healthy dogs might be useful for comparison with results obtained from dogs with known or suspected cardiovascular disease. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:1160-1165)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

We investigated the relation between left ventricular dysfunction and myocardial edema in dogs with heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) infection that were undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass. Dogs with and without D immitis were anesthetized by continuous thiopental infusion and were mechanically ventilated. Sonomicrometry crystals were placed on the long and short axes of the left ventricle, and a Millar pressure transducer was placed in the left ventricular chamber. Pressure-volume loops were digitized and continuously recorded. Dogs with and without D immitis were placed on standard hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass, with 1 hour of aortic cross-clamp. Wet-to-dry weight ratio corrected for residual blood volume was used to quantitate the volume of myocardial edema. Preload recruitable stroke work was used as a preload-independent index of systolic function. Tau, the isovolumic relaxation time constant, was determined to assess diastolic relaxation. Dogs with D immitis had increased baseline myocardial wet-to-dry weight ratio. After cardiopulmonary bypass, myocardial edema increased in all dogs. Acute edema attributable to cardiopulmonary bypass decreased preload recruitable stroke work in all dogs of both groups, and dogs with D immitis could not be weaned from cardiopulmonary bypass. Myocardial edema increased diastolic relaxation times (τ) in dogs with and without D immitis. We conclude that cardiopulmonary bypass and heartworm infection induce myocardial edema. This edema compromises left ventricular systolic and diastolic function making D immitis an important confounding factor in weaning dogs from cardiopulmonary bypass.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

In this study, we tested the hypothesis that erythrocyte deformability is decreased in the development of cardiac failure induced by NaCl toxicosis. Deformability of erythrocytes and routine hematologic and biochemical variables were measured in 6 of 50 chickens that were given 5 g of NaCl/L in their drinking water from day 7 to day 42, and were compared with values in 6 of 50 healthy chickens given free access to tap water. Deformability was assessed by passing a 10% suspension of erythrocytes through a polycarbonate membrane with 5-µm pores. Chickens were euthanatized and heart and body weights were determined.

Treatment with NaCl induced right-sided cardiac failure up to day 28. The ratios of heart weight to body weight were greater, for right ventricle by 20 to 64% and for left ventricle by 15 to 27%, attributable to NaCl treatment. Deformability of erythrocytes of NaCl-treated chickens was markedly decreased, in association with increased erythrocyte size and plasma Na+ concentration. However, only part of the decreased deformability could be explained by swelling of erythrocytes. Decreased deformability could not be explained by increased cell viscosity because mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, the primary determinant of erythrocyte viscosity, was decreased. Because decreased deformability of erythrocytes has been demonstrated previously to be associated with increased vascular resistance, decreased deformability may have contributed to the development of right-sided cardiac failure in these chickens.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Eighteen rats were anesthetized with xylazine/ketamine and placed in right lateral recumbency, and a small incision was made in the skin of the left hemithorax. A 21-gauge, 1-inch, short-beveled hypodermic needle, attached directly to a pressure transducer filled with degassed saline solution, was advanced through the incision into the left ventricle and then advanced through the septum into the right ventricle. High-fidelity tracings of right and left ventricular pressures and their derivatives were obtained through this approach in 13 rats. In 5 rats, measurements of right ventricular pressures were obtained by additional right ventricular puncture through the incision in the left hemithorax. Right and left ventricular pressures were recorded on single occasions in 18 rats, twice at 2-week intervals in 6 rats, and 3 times at 2-week intervals in 3 rats. Minimal hemopericardium was observed, but most rats had evidence of hemorrhage on the visceral pericardium. Left and right ventricular pressures can be measured rapidly, safely, and repeatedly in anesthetized rats by this method.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Clinical and pathologic alterations during the development of furazolidone-induced toxicosis were investigated in a group of 35 newly hatched male Pekin ducklings fed a ration containing 700 mg of furazolidone/kg of feed for 27 days. A control group (n = 25) was fed the same ration without added furazolidone. Every 3 days, ducklings were weighed and palpated for ascites and 3 were chosen at random for euthanasia to determine the severity of lesions and to obtain hearts for gross measurements and ultrastructural study. Clinical alterations in treated ducklings consisted of decreased feed consumption with lower weight gain and nervous signs. Gross pathologic alterations included cardiomegaly with dilatation of all chambers and thinning of the myocardium, pericardial effusion, pulmonary edema and congestion, ascites, and testicular enlargement. Gross lesions were not observed before day 8. The earliest lesion (day 9) was cardiac chamber dilatation, with the left ventricle and left atrium most commonly and most severely dilated. Hearts from ducklings euthanatized on days 6, 12, 18, 24, and 27 were examined ultrastructurally. Myofibrillar lysis was first observed on day 12 in 1 duckling (of 3) and in at least 1 duckling from subsequent euthanasia periods. Myofibrillar lysis did not appear to be uniform among the cardiac chambers.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Figure 1 —then turn the page → Diagnosis Biatrial and biventricular enlargement is evident. The left ventricle is hypokinetic (left ventricular internal dimension in systole, 40.5 mm; shortening fraction, 9%; ejection fraction, 19%), and a

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To quantify myocardial contrast enhancement (MCE) of the left ventricle (LV) by use of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) in healthy cats and cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and to compare MCE between the 2 groups.

Animals—10 healthy cats and 26 Maine Coon cats with moderate to severe HCM but without clinical evidence of congestive heart failure.

Procedure—Anesthetized cats underwent gradient echo CMRI examination. Short-axis images of the LV were acquired before and 7 minutes after IV administration of gadolinium dimeglumine. Regions of interest were manually traced in the quadrants of 5 mid-LV slices acquired at end systole, and the MCE percentage was calculated from summed weight-averaged data from all slices. Doppler tissue imaging echocardiography was performed to measure the early diastolic myocardial velocity (Em) as an index of diastolic function. Three-way repeated-measures ANOVA was used to determine differences in MCE between cats with HCM and healthy cats. Simple linear regression was used to assess whether MCE was correlated with LV mass, LV mass index (LVMI), or Em. A Student t test was used to compare the SDs of the postcontrast myocardial signal intensity between the 2 groups.

Results—There was no difference in MCE between cats with HCM and healthy cats. There was no correlation of MCE with LV mass, LVMI, or Em. There was no difference in heterogeneity of signal intensities of LV myocardium between the 2 groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Contrastenhancement CMRI was not useful in detecting diffuse myocardial fibrosis in cats with HCM. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1891–1894)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the influence of age, body weight (BW), heart rate (HR), sex, and left ventricular shortening fraction (LVSF) on transmitral and pulmonary venous flow in clinically normal dogs.

Animals—92 client-owned dogs 3 months to 19 years old.

Procedure—Transthoracic Doppler echocardiography recordings of transmitral flow and pulmonary venous flow were obtained in conscious unsedated dogs. Influence of age, BW, HR, sex, and LVSF on diastolic variables was assessed, using statistical methods such as ANOVA on ranks and univariate and multivariate forward stepwise linear regression analyses.

Results—Age significantly influenced isovolumic relaxation time (IVRT; r = 0.56), ratio between peak velocity of the early diastolic mitral flow wave-to-peak velocity of late diastolic mitral flow wave (E:A; r = –0.44), deceleration time of early diastolic mitral flow (DTE; r = 0.26), and peak velocity of atrial reversal pulmonary venous flow wave (AR-wave; r= 0.37). Significant changes of mitral inflow and pulmonary venous flow variables were evident only in dogs > 6 and > 10 years old, respectively. Body weight significantly influenced DTE ( r = 0.63), late diastolic flow duration ( r= 0.60), and AR duration ( r= 0.47), whereas HR significantly affected DTE ( r = –0.34), IVRT ( r= –0.33), and peak velocity of AR ( r= 0.24). Sex or LVSF (range 22 to 48%) did not influence any echocardiographic variables.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Age, BW, and HR are important factors that affect filling of the left atrium and left ventricle in clinically normal dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1447–1454)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine acute cardiovascular effects and pharmacokinetics of carvedilol in healthy dogs.

Animals—14 mature healthy Beagles.

Procedure—12 dogs were anesthetized with morphine and α-chloralose. Catheters were placed in the aorta, left ventricle, and right atrium to record systemic and pulmonary pressures and determine vascular resistance and cardiac output. Electrocardiograms (leads I, aVF, and V3) were recorded to determine electrocardiographic changes. Variables were measured before and after IV injection of incremental doses of carvedilol (cumulative doses, 10, 30, 70, 150, 310, and 630 μg/kg of body weight; n = 6) or vehicle alone (6). Pharmacokinetic analysis was performed, using 2 conscious dogs given 160 mg of carvedilol/kg as a single IV injection.

Results—Heart rate and velocity of fiber shortening at zero load (Vmax) increased slightly but significantly from baseline values at doses of carvedilol ≥ 310 μg/kg and 10 μg/kg, respectively. Carvedilol did not affect systemic and pulmonary pressures or vascular resistances. Intravenous administration of approximately 150 μg of carvedilol/kg resulted in a plasma carvedilol concentration of approximately 100 ng/ml. Mean elimination halflife was 54 minutes, half-life of distribution was 3.5 minutes, and volume of distribution was 2,038 ml/kg.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The therapeutic plasma concentration of carvedilol in humans is 100 ng/ml. At that plasma concentration in dogs, the reduction in afterload and positive inotropic effect that we observed would be beneficial for treating heart failure and minimizing the cardiotoxic effects of doxorubicin. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:57–60)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To assess Doppler tissue imaging (DTI) for evaluating left ventricular diastolic wall motion in healthy cats and cats with cardiomyopathy.

Animals

20 healthy cats, 9 cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), and 9 cats with unclassified cardiomyopathy (UCM).

Procedure

A pulsed wave DTI sample gate was positioned at a subendocardial region of the left ventricular free wall in the short axis view and at the lateral mitral annulus in the apical 4-chamber view. Indices of diastolic wall motion were measured, including peak diastolic velocity (PDV), mean rate of acceleration and deceleration of the maximal diastolic waveform (MDWaccel and MDWdecel, respectively), and isovolumetric relaxation time (IVRT).

Results

The PDV of cats with HCM and 6 of 9 cats with UCM was significantly decreased, compared with that of healthy cats. In the 3 cats with UCM that had a PDV that was not different from healthy cats, MDWaccel and MDWdecel were greater, and IVRT was shorter than those of healthy cats. The IVRT in cats with HCM was longer than that of other cats.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Indices of diastolic function in cats with HCM, and in many cats with UCM, differed from those of healthy cats and were similar to those reported in humans with HCM and restrictive cardiomyopathy, respectively. However, the hemodynamic abnormality was not the same for all cats with UCM; some cats with an enlarged left atrium and a normal left ventricle (ie, UCM) had abnormal left ventricular wall motion consistent with restrictive cardiomyopathy while others did not. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:1478–1486)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research