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) concentrations were detected. A subsequent serum sample collected in January 2005 revealed lipemia, hypertriglyceridemia (584 mg/dL), hypercholesterolemia (648 mg/dL), and the first appearance of hyperglycemia (307 mg/dL; reference range, 70 to 203 mg/dL 1

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

,580 neutrophils/ μL), hyperglycemia (177 mg/dL; reference range, 59 to 122 mg/dL), and mildly high serum activities of creatine kinase (741 U/L; reference range, 119 to 287 U/L) and alkaline phosphatase (334 U/L; reference range, 86 to 285 U/L). The mild

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

chloride concentrations > 140 mEq/L and glucose concentrations > 300 mg/dL, which was suggestive of hyperosmolar disorder. 2 Other common abnormalities identified in crias with cryptosporidiosis included hypokalemia, hyperlactemia, hyperglycemia

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

cells/μL). Serum biochemical abnormalities included hyperglycemia (194 mg/dL; reference range, 2 76 to 176 mg/dL), high urea nitrogen concentration (42 mg/dL; reference range, 2 9 to 36 mg/dL), high creatinine concentration (4.2 mg/dL; reference range

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

demonstrated substantial hyperfibrinogenemia (1,000 mg/dL; reference range, 100 to 500 mg/dL) and a degenerative left shift with neutrophils that had mild toxic changes ( Table 1 ). Plasma biochemical analysis identified severe azotemia and hyperglycemia, with

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

hyperglycemia, hypoinsulinemia, and bradycardia. 17,20,21 However, no reports exist of the effect of medetomidine on carbohydrate metabolism in bears. Acepromazine maleate and butorphanol tartrate are other sedatives that might be combined with TZ for

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

also commonly develops in cattle with alkalemia because of metabolic alkalosis 1,28,29 or hyperglycemia 30,31 attributable to a shift of potassium from extracellular to intracellular spaces. Alkalemia causes a decrease in plasma potassium

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine frequency and types of complications, prognostic factors, and primary diseases affecting clinical outcome associated with administration of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) in cats.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—75 cats that received TPN for ≥ 12 hours.

Procedure—Medical records were reviewed, and information was obtained on signalment, history, problems at initial evaluation, physical examination findings, weight and changes in weight while receiving TPN, duration in the hospital before initiation of TPN, the type of TPN catheter used, duration of TPN administration, and final diagnosis. Laboratory results obtained immediately prior to TPN and at 24 and 96 hours following initiation of TPN administration were compared.

Results—Reports of weight loss at initial evaluation, hyperglycemia at 24 hours, or diagnosis of chronic renal failure were significantly associated with increased mortality rate. Greater serum albumin concentrations prior to and at 96 hours following TPN administration were significantly associated with decreased mortality rate. Mechanical and septic complications were infrequent and not associated with increased mortality rate. Most cats had multiple diseases. The overall mortality rate was 52%; among 75 cats, 36 recovered, 23 were euthanatized, and 16 died as a result of their primary illness or complications associated with their illness.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated high mortality rate in cats maintained on TPN that had multiple concurrent diseases associated with a poor prognosis. Indicators of poor prognosis included a history of weight loss, hyperglycemia at 24 hours following TPN administration, hypoalbuminemia, and chronic renal failure. (J Am Vet med Assoc 2004;225:242–250)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To correlate serum fructosamine concentrations with established measures of glycemic control and to compare serum fructosamine and blood glycosylated hemoglobin (GHb) concentrations as a means for assessing glycemic control in diabetic cats.

Design

Longitudinal cohort study.

Animals

26 healthy cats, 5 cats with stress-induced hyperglycemia, 15 untreated diabetic cats, and 36 treated diabetic cats.

Procedure

Control of glycemia was classified and monitored and serum fructosamine and blood GHb concentrations were measured for 12 poorly controlled diabetic cats before and after improving glycemic control, 8 well-controlled treated diabetic cats before and after glycemic control deteriorated, and 5 cats with diabetes mellitus before and after onset of stress-induced hyperglycemia.

Results

Mean serum fructosamine and blood GHb concentrations were significantly higher in untreated diabetic cats, compared with healthy cats, and in 24 poorly controlled diabetic cats, compared with 12 well-controlled diabetic cats. Mean serum fructosamine and blood GHb concentrations decreased significantly in 12 poorly controlled diabetic cats after improving glycemic control and increased significantly in 8 well-controlled diabetic cats after glycemic control deteriorated. A significant stress-induced increase in mean blood glucose concentration was evident 12 hours after insulin administration, but not in 5 docile diabetic cats that became fractious.

Clinical Implications

Serum fructosamine and blood GHb concentrations are clinically useful tools for monitoring control of glycemia in cats with diabetes mellitus. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;214:1794-1798)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate effects of hydrocortisone administration, with and without concurrent administration of insulin, on intermediary metabolism in alpacas.

Animals—8 adult castrated male alpacas.

Procedure—On each of 2 consecutive days, food was withheld from alpacas for 8 hours. Alpacas then were administered 1 mg of hydrocortisone sodium succinate/kg, IV (time 0). On 1 of the days, randomly assigned alpacas were also administered regular insulin (0.2 U/kg, IV) 120 minutes after hydrocortisone administration. Blood samples were collected at 0, 120, 135, 150, 165, 180, 210, 240, 300, and 360 minutes. Plasma concentrations of glucose and lactate and serum concentrations of triglycerides, cholesterol, nonesterified fatty acids, and β-hydroxybutyrate were determined. Data were compared between days. Additionally, serum insulin concentrations before and after hydrocortisone administration were determined for selected samples.

Results—Hydrocortisone administration induced hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, a reduction in concentrations of triglycerides and cholesterol, and a reduction in triglyceride-to-cholesterol ratio. Subsequent insulin administration temporarily negated the hyperglycemic effects of hydrocortisone, induced temporary hyperlactemia, and augmented the reduction in blood triglycerides.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—A single dose of a short-acting corticosteroid does not increase blood lipid fractions in healthy alpacas, probably because of a competent endogenous insulin response. Corticosteroids may induce differing responses in camelids with depleted glycogen stores or an ineffective insulin response. Administration of insulin can effectively negate the hyperglycemic effects of hydrocortisone and augment lipoprotein clearance. Hence, insulin administration may be therapeutic for alpacas with hyperglycemia, hyperlipemia, or hyperketonemia. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1269–1274)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research