Search Results

You are looking at 31 - 40 of 114 items for :

  • "hoof wall" x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether the bending modulus and yield strength of the outer stratum medium (SM) differed from those of the SM zona alba (SMZA) and to what degree they differed. In addition, a comparison was made among our values and values reported elsewhere.

Sample Population—10 normal equine feet.

Procedure—A 3-point bending technique was used to determine the bending modulus and yield strength of the outer SM and SMZA. Efforts were made to minimize biological and technical factors that could influence the bending modulus.

Results—Bending modulus of the outer SM was (mean ± SD) 187.6 ± 41.3 MPa, whereas mean value for the SMZA was 98.2 ± 36.8 MPa. Mean yield strength was 19.4 ± 2.6 MPa for the outer SM and 5.6 ± 1.7 MPa for the SMZA. Values for bending modulus and yield strength differed significantly between the outer SM and SMZA. Significant differences were not detected when the outer SM was loaded in bending from the outer or inner surface.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Potentially, the SMZA could serve as a mechanical buffer zone between the rigid hoof wall and bone and laminar tissues. This buffer zone potentially assists the feet of horses in transmitting a load through the tissues and prevents the most susceptible tissues from becoming damaged. More consistency among tissue selection, preparation, and testing protocols must be attained before an accurate 3-dimensional finite-element model of an equine foot can be constructed. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:745–751)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether a unique dihydropyridine (BAY TG 1000) would be beneficial in preventing laminitis in horses.

Animals—16 clinically normal adult horses.

Procedure—8 pairs of horses were used in a controlled double-blind study, using sex- and agematched horses randomly assigned to treatment or control groups. Horses were subjected to carbohydrate overload to induce laminitis. Treated horses were administered BAY TG 1000 (30 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h) for 3 days. Hoof wall surface temperature (HWST) and lameness were recorded at 4-hour intervals. The HWST was adjusted on the basis of time of onset of lameness and evaluated, using a repeated-measures ANOVA. Lameness 8 hours after onset and clinical status 72 hours after onset of lameness were evaluated, using Mann-Whitney procedures.

Results—Analysis revealed that BAY TG 1000 did not decrease the incidence of lameness but significantly ameliorated prodromal hypothermia, lessened the severity of lameness 8 hours after onset of lameness, and improved the clinical status of horses 72 hours after onset of lameness.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Results support the conclusion that BAY TG 1000 was protective when used in prevention of laminitis. The drug decreased severity and improved clinical status (recovery) of induced lameness, which was interpreted to mean that the drug's actions were on mechanisms important but secondary to primary causal mechanisms of laminitis. Therefore, drugs that enhance digital perfusion via alteration of rheologic activity may have potential use in the prevention and management of laminitis in horses. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:443–447)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effect of hemi-circumferential periosteal transection and elevation (HCPTE) in foals with experimentally induced angular limb deformities.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—10 healthy foals.

Procedure—When foals were 30 days old, transphyseal bridge implants were placed on the lateral aspects of both distal radial physes. At 90 days of age (or when 15 degrees of angulation had developed), implants were removed, and HCPTE was performed on 1 limb. Foals were confined in small pens after surgery; the front feet of the foals were rasped weekly to maintain medial-to-lateral hoof wall balance. Dorsopalmar radiographic projections of the carpi were obtained before HCPTE and 2, 4, 6, 8, and 48 weeks later.

Results—At the time of transphyseal bridge removal and HCPTE, both treated and control limbs were observed to have a significantly greater carpal valgus, compared with the initial degree of angulation at 30 days of age. Following HCPTE or sham surgery, all limbs straightened over the subsequent 2 months of the study. Median angulation was not significantly different between treated and control limbs at any time during the study.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that in foals with experimentally induced limb deformities, HCPTE was no more effective than stall confinement and hoof trimming alone for correction of the deformity. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:536–540)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Prothrombotic changes occurring in the prodromal stages of carbohydrate-induced laminitis were investigated. Hemostatic alterations were evaluated by determining platelet counts, platelet survival, activated partial thromboplastin time, one-stage prothrombin time, and monocyte procoagulant activity. Thrombosis of vessels in the hoof wall was evaluated by contrast arteriography and histologic examination. Of 5 horses, 4 became lame between 28 and 52 hours after carbohydrate administration. Mean platelet count in laminitis-affected horses was lower throughout the prodromal stages of laminitis, compared with that in control horses, but differences were not statistically significant. However, survival of indium-111-labeled platelets was less than the value in control horses by 6 hours after carbohydrate administration. Arteriography of disarticulated feet revealed marked reduction in blood supply to hooves in laminitis-affected horses. Histologic examination of the laminar dermis disclosed microthrombi in venules of the laminar dermis in 2 of 4 affected horses. Statistically significant changes in prothrombin time were not observed, and changes in activated partial thromboplastin time were slight and occurred only at the onset of lameness. Statistically significant changes in monocyte procoagulant activity were not observed. Plasma endotoxin-like activity was not detected in laminitis-affected horses. These data indicate that platelet survival was decreased within the first 6 hours after induction of carbohydrate-induced laminitis, but systemic activation of the coagulation system was not detected.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Objective

To measure blood flow in the palmar digital artery and laminae corium, using ultrasonic and laser Doppler flowmetry, respectively.

Animals

6 healthy horses.

Procedure

Digital blood flow and laminar perfusion, respectively, were measured by placing a flow probe around the palmar digital artery and a laser Doppler flow probe in a hole in the dorsal aspect of the hoof wall. All horses were given saline (0.9% NaCI) solution (1 L, IV, during a 30-minute period). Seven days later, each horse was given endotoxin (0.1 μg/kg of body weight, IV, in 1 L of saline solution, during a 30-minute period). Digital blood flow, laminar perfusion, heart and respiratory rates, body temperature, and clinical signs of endotoxemia were recorded throughout a 240-minute period. Repeated-measures ANCOVA was used to evaluate changes in outcome variables.

Results

Treatment with saline solution did not cause a change in measured variables. All horses had mild clinical signs of endotoxemia. Endotoxin treatment caused a significant decrease in digital blood flow and increases in heart rate and body temperature. Laminar perfusion decreased after endotoxin treatment.

Conclusions

Endotoxin administration caused a profound transient decrease in digital blood flow and a less substantial decrease in laminar perfusion.

Clinical Relevance

Horses with clinical endotoxemia were likely to have decreased digital blood flow and, possibly, decreased laminar perfusion, potentially predisposing them to vascular alterations within the digits. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:192–196)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Lameness examinations and radiography of the distal phalanx and associated soft-tissue structures of the front feet of 103 Thoroughbred racehorses, 4 to 9 years old, were performed to determine normal radiographic appearance and morphometry. Of 103 horses examined, 41 were used in the study that were without clinical signs of foot problems or lameness, had raced at least twice prior to radiography, and had raced at least twice more in the 6 months after radiography.

Lateromedial and dorsoproximal-palmarodistal radiographic views of each front distal phalanx were used to measure 28 bone and soft-tissue structures, and to evaluate 14 radiographic findings. Significant differences were not observed between left and right digits for any radiographic determination.

Mean thickness of the soft tissues dorsal to the distal phalanx, which provides an evaluation of the epidermal laminae, was 14.6 ± 1.0 mm when measured adjacent to the distal aspect of the distal phalanx. Most horses had straight, smooth hoof walls that were parallel to the dorsal cortex of the distal phalanx. The mean degree of palmar rotation of the distal phalanx was −0.5 ± 1.3, and none was rotated more than 4°.

The dorsal cortex was smooth and straight, without bone deposition or reaction in either digit for only 5 of the 41 horses. Active bone formation was seen unilaterally along the middle portion of the dorsal cortex in 7 horses, and along the distal portion of the dorsal cortex in 4 of the phalanges from 3 horses. New bone formation along the distal dorsal cortex was often accompanied by resorption of the palmar cortex. For 26 of the 31 horses without active bone deposition, smooth inactive bone formation along the midportion of the dorsal cortex was identified in 1 or both distal phalanges.

Bone at the solar margin of the distal phalanx was uniformly dense and finely trabeculated, without evidence of resorption or fractures. Severe irregularity of the solar margin was not found in any digit, and the margin of both phalanges was smooth in 8 horses. Various degrees of solar margin irregularity were observed in the other 33 horses.

The mean number of vascular canals within the distal phalanx was 8.4 ± 1.7, and the diameter of the largest canal was 3.4 ± 0.6 mm. A mean number of 2.0 ± 1.2 vascular canals was oriented parallel to the radiographic beam on the dorsoproximal-palmarodistal view, and these were termed end-on vessels, because they were visualized as radiolucent dots ≥ 1 mm in diameter in the central portion of the distal phalanx.

Racing performance of horses with subtle radiographic signs of laminitis (palmar rotation, hoof wall curvature or undulations, palmar cortical resorption, distal dorsal cortical bone deposition) was poorer than that of horses without these signs. These findings are suggestive of a subclinical laminitis condition, which may influence performance without causing overt clinical signs.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To measure plasma endothelin-1 (ET-1) concentrations and digital blood flow in clinically endotoxemic horses.

Animals—To measure plasma endothelin-1 (ET-1) concentrations and digital blood flow in clinically endotoxemic horses.

Procedure—On days 2 and 5 following surgery, Doppler ultrasonographic digital arterial blood flow measurements were obtained. Hematologic and biochemical analyses were performed, and plasma concentrations of ET-1 and endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide) were determined. A scoring system based on 9 clinical variables was used to assign horses to group B (quartile with greatest cumulative score) or group A (remaining 3 quartiles). Follow-up at 2.5 years was obtained by telephone questionnaire.

Results—For all horses on day 2, median (interquartile values) plasma ET-1 concentrations were 1.4 (0.8, 1.7) pg/mL, whereas on day 5, plasma ET-1 concentrations were 1.0 (0.5, 1.6) pg/mL. On day 2, digital blood flow was 0.057 (0.02, 0.07) mL/min in group A horses and 0.035 (0.02, 0.03) mL/min in group B horses. On day 5, plasma ET-1 concentration was significantly (73%) higher in group B horses, compared with group A horses. Thirty of 36 horses were alive at 2.5 years; group A horses were more likely to have survived (odds ratio, 25; 95% confidence interval, 2.4 to 262). Significant associations were found between an increase in digital pulses, hoof wall temperatures, or both and increased digital blood flow (0.14 vs 0.04 mL/min) on day 2 and increased digital arterial diameter (0.32 vs 0.23 cm) on day 5.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Horses with more severe endotoxemia had decreased digital blood flow, increased plasma ET-1 concentrations, and decreased long-term survival. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:630–636)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To define a 3-dimensional (3-D) coordinate system with clear definitions of origins and axes relative to hoof anatomic features and determine whether solar surfaces of Thoroughbred racehorse hooves have geometric asymmetry in the mediolateral and dorsopalmar directions.

Sample Population—Left forelimb hooves from 20 Thoroughbred racehorse cadavers.

Procedure—A right-handed 3-D coordinate axes system centered on the collateral sulci was defined for the left front hoof. Orthogonal distances of anatomic features from the dorsopalmar axis and the plane coincident with the ground were measured and compared between medial and lateral sides and between dorsal and palmar regions of the hoof.

Results—The hoof was wider and had a greater radius laterally than medially. The most distal part of the lateral bar of the frog was further from the dorsopalmar axis than that of the medial bar. Overall, mediolateral asymmetries in depth were not observed. The sole at the perimeter was deeper medially in the dorsal part of the hoof and laterally in the palmar part, with depth overall being greater palmarly than dorsally. Most features had dorsopalmar asymmetry.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—When the angle bisected by the collateral sulci is used to determine the dorsopalmar axis of the hoof, most central structures (bars and collateral sulci) have mediolateral symmetry. However, the hoof wall and sole have some mediolateral asymmetries and most structures have dorsopalmar asymmetry. These findings may assist the development of devices for attachment to hooves and studies of the interaction of hooves with bearing surfaces. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:1030–1039)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

cells of the hoof that can result in lameness and hoof wall deformities. 2 They are an uncommon but well-recognized condition affecting the equine hoof. Common clinical signs and physical examination findings include lameness (ranging from mild to

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

mass nor the resorptive bone lesion contacted the navicular bone, navicular bursa, or distal interphalangeal joint. Radiopaque markers placed on the hoof wall confirmed the margins of the mass and guided the placement of surgical transection sites for

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association