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Summary

Atrial premature complexes (apc) were identified in 16 cows over a 2-year period. Fourteen cows had concurrent gastrointestinal disease. Variation in the intensity of the first heart sound and an occasionally irregular heart rhythm were evident during thoracic auscultation. Neither cardiac murmurs nor pulse deficits were detected in any cows, and clinical signs of heart failure were lacking. Three cows had apc immediately prior to or after development of atrial fibrillation.

The heart rate when apc were diagnosed ranged from 48 to 124 beats/min (mean, 77 ± 20 beats/min), and the apc frequency ranged from < 1 to 23/min (mean 9.4 ± 8.0). The P-wave morphologic characteristics in 4 cows with apc was abnormal. The coupling index of the apc varied between 0.44 and 0.95, with a mean of 0.73. Aberrant ventricular activation was usually associated with a short coupling interval (coupling index < 0.60) and was observed in 3 cows.

Ten cows were determined to be hypocalcemic and 4 cows hypokalemic when apc were identified. Atrial ectopic activity could not be detected in 12 cows after resolution of the concurrent gastrointestinal disorder or electrolyte abnormality. Atrial premature complexes may be a functional cardiac disorder in cattle, unrelated to structural heart disease. The potential for apc to progress to sustained atrial arrhythmias such as atrial fibrillation should be considered.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Feline leukemia virus status and antibody titer to feline oncornavirus-associated cell membrane antigen (focma) were determined on plasma from 183 outpatient cats and 61 cats from 2 closed, FeLV-positive, multiple-cat households. Cats with focma antibody titer had a significantly (P < 0.02) higher prevalence of history of disease than did cats without focma antibody. Diseases included upper respiratory tract infections, abscesses, ear infections, lower urinary tract infections, gastrointestinal disease, pneumonia, uterine infection, lymphadenopathy, fever of unknown origin, and bacterial infections. The focma antibody titer was determined by use of an indirect fluorescent antibody test; titer ≥ 1:16 was considered to be positive results. Lower mean focma antibody titer was observed in young cats with history of disease (P < 0.05) than in young cats without history of disease or in older cats with or without history of disease. Prevalence of focma antibody titer was identical (38%) in young and adult cats, indicating cats likely were exposed to FeLV as kittens because a higher prevalence of focma antibody titer in older cats would otherwise be expected.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Fly-catching syndrome (FCS) is a rare condition typically characterized by episodes during which affected dogs bite or lick the air and jump for no apparent reason. Among veterinary literature, obsessive-compulsive disorders, focal epileptic seizures, and underlying gastrointestinal diseases were considered the most likely triggering causes. Recently, gluten-sensitive dyskinesia has been described in dogs, but it has never been reported to be associated to FCS.

ANIMAL

A 6-year-old male French Bulldog.

CLINICAL PRESENTATION, PROGRESSION, AND PROCEDURES

The dog was presented for a 2-month history of episodes characterized by sudden onset of jumping while trying to catch something in the air without impaired consciousness or autonomic signs. The episodes could be interrupted by the owner and lasted several minutes. The dog suffered from chronic gastrointestinal signs. The neurological examination was within normal limits except for the episodes suggestive of FCS during the consultation. The serological test for anti-gliadin immunoglobulin G (AG IgG) and anti-transglutaminase-2 immunoglobulin A (ATG-2 IgA) antibodies resulted above the reference range (3.092 and 0.929, respectively; normal range < 0.6).

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME

An exclusively gluten-free diet was started. Complete resolution of the episodes was reported during a 3-month follow-up.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of FCS associated to positive AG IgG and ATG-2 IgA antibodies responsive to a gluten-free diet. The typical manifestation of the episodes and response to diet support the hypothesis that FCS may be associated to gastrointestinal disorders. However, more studies are needed in order to confirm this hypothesis.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Forty 3- to 17-week old domestic ferrets, including 2 gnotobiotes, were inoculated orally and/or rectally with 106 to 109 colony-forming units of 1 or more of 4 strains of Campylobacter jejuni, 3 of mink and 1 of human origin. Feeding or gavage of any of the 4 strains, in milk or broth, with or without preinoculation sodium bicarbonate treatment to neutralize stomach acid, induced colonization in 38/40 ferrets; diarrhea lasted 2 to 4 days in conventional kits, 6 days in gnotobiotes. Bacteremia was detected in 4 of 18 tested, 2 to 5 days after inoculation. Two strains caused no more severe disease or prolonged colonization after 3 serial iv passages in kits than they did before passage. Multiple inoculations with a given strain resulted in progressively briefer colonization and milder disease, but subsequent inoculation with a different strain induced colonization and gastrointestinal disease similar to a primary infection. Five kits inoculated rectally after 4 previous homologous inoculations were resistant to colonization as well as to disease. Agglutinin titers of ferrets inoculated orally or rectally once were low or undetectable, but increased in response to repeated inoculation. Pretreatment with a 1% formalin enema caused mild colon irritation without clinical or histologic evidence of proliferative colitis in ferrets concurrently inoculated orally and/or rectally, whether or not they had preexisting antibodies to any strain of C jejuni. Histologic examination of tissues revealed leukocytic infiltration of intestinal lamina propria in 29 of 35 infected kits and 5 of 8 noninfected controls, and cryptosporidiosis in 5 infected kits plus 1 control. Examination of silver-stained sections of intestine from 15 infected ferrets revealed Campylobacter like organisms on the surface of, but never inside, epithelial cells. The lack of characteristic gross or histologic lesions suggested that C jejuni is not, by itself, responsible for proliferative colitis in ferrets.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Cell-mediated immunity was evaluated in intestinal, respiratory, and systemic lymphoid tissues of pigs exposed when 11 days old to virulent transmissible gastroenteritis virus (tgev), attenuated tgev, or porcine respiratory coronavirus (prcv), 3 antigenically related porcine coronaviruses with distinct enteric and respiratory tissue tropisms. Mononuclear cells were prepared from mesenteric lymph nodes (mln), bronchial lymph nodes (bln), and spleens of pigs and tested for virus-specific responses by use of lymphocyte proliferation assays. Vigorous mln and bln proliferation responses to virulent tgev and prcv, respectively, at postinoculation days 8 to 24 were strongly associated with prior detection of tgev in rectal swab samples and prcv in nasal swab samples. Gastrointestinal disease and intestinal virus replication, assessed on the basis of rectal virus shedding, were almost exclusively found in the virulent tgev-inoculated pigs, even though virulent tgev and a high dose of attenuated tgev elicited the highest proliferation responses in mln. Pigs exposed to prcv or attenuated tgev did not have clinical signs of disease, and only 1 pig given a high dose of attenuated tgev shed virus in feces. Porcine respiratory coronavirus replicated in the respiratory tract after either oronasal or aerosol inoculation of virus and induced strong bln, but not mln, proliferation responses. A high dose of attenuated tgev (4 × 108 plaque-forming units) was more effective than a lower dose of attenuated tgev (7 × 106 plaque-forming units) in eliciting significant lymphocyte proliferation in mln and bln. Cellular immune function, assessed on the basis of mitogen-induced proliferation of lymphocytes, was comparable for all 3 sources of lymphocytes and was not adversely affected by exposure to any of the 3 coronaviruses, nor did it vary with age of the pigs. The tissue tropism of tgev and prcv was associated with induction of virus-specific cell-mediated immune responses, as evidenced by substantial lymphocyte proliferation responses in mln and bln, mucosa-associated lymph nodes adjacent to the primary sites of virus replication. The failure of prcv strain ISU-1 to replicate in the intestinal tract correlated with poor virus-specific cellular immune responses in mln.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

disease A unique syndrome of severe eosinophilic dermatitis with edema has been described in dogs with and without concurrent signs of gastrointestinal disease. A review of medical records for 18 dogs with erythroderma and gastrointestinal disease found

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

frequently now than a decade ago 1,10–13 owing to the clinical relevance of cobalamin as a diagnostic and prognostic marker for gastrointestinal diseases in cats and dogs. In addition, continuous monitoring of serum cobalamin concentrations in cats and dogs

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

was most often associated with positive fecal parasite screens; however, causes of digestive issues independent of parasitic infections were not detailed. Significant gastrointestinal disease has been reported in other exotic canids. Clinical signs

Open access

Exploratory laparotomy is the gold standard for the diagnosis and treatment of dogs with gastrointestinal disease. This procedure is typically performed by means of a large incision, which may extend from the xyphoid to the pubis. 1 In humans

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

the spring and summer months. Although the prognosis is grave, some C felis infected cats may survive with supportive treatment. EQUINE Renal insufficiency in horses with primary gastrointestinal disease 572 Outcome for horses with

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association