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Summary

Various descriptive approaches were taken in a prospective investigation to characterize fetal loss in cows on a California dairy. The methods and observations were offered for consideration by practitioners engaged in dairy herd health medicine. For 4,732 pregnancies followed from 2,163 cows in a 6.5 year period, the respective proportions (percentage) of cows aborting (1 – cumulative proportion not aborting by 260 days) and abortion densities (abortions per 10,000 cow-days-at-risk) were 10.63 and 6.29 for all fetal deaths, 9.36 and 5.49 for deaths resulting in fetal expulsion, and 1.39 and 0.80 for deaths resulting in mummification. The greatest risk of fetal death (119 deaths/10,000 fetuses/d) was observed between 98 and 105 days of gestation, and median age at fetal death ranged from 99.0 to 105.5 days. Abortion density for fetal deaths resulting in mummification for cows conceiving during September (1.61/10,000 fetuses/d) and October (1.63/10,000 fetuses/d) was tenfold greater than that for cows conceiving in February (0.16/10,000 fetuses/d) and was twice that of the overall rate (0.84/10,000 fetuses/d). For cohorts of nonculled cows, abortion rate increased after 5 years of age, after 5 pregnancies, or after 4 calvings. For cows with at least one previous abortion, the proportion aborting (14.50%) was higher than that for cows without a previous abortion (12.14%). For a given gravidity, abortion rate was higher among cows that had experienced a previous abortion, compared with those that had not. These methods and observations may help provide a logical foundation on which to base clinical hypotheses regarding causes of abortion, and they may offer insight into pitfalls of bias and confounding to be anticipated.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

.com/links.html . Accessed Jun 1, 2011. References 1. Sykes JE , Hartmann K , Lunn KF , et al. 2010 ACVIM small animal consensus statement on leptospirosis: diagnosis, epidemiology, treatment, and prevention . J Vet Intern Med 2011 ; 25 : 1 – 13

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Outcomes Research and Epidemiology (CORE) 100 has been established at Kansas State University’s College of Veterinary Medicine as an interdisciplinary research and training center for outcomes research in animal health. 100 The first center of its kind in

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

.r-project.org/ . g. Madigan J, Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, Calif: Personal communication, 2011. References 1. Foley J Biberstein E . Anaplasmataceae . In: Hirsh DC

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

epidemiology of these infections worldwide. Unfortunately, the low prevalence of infections with “ Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum” and Mtc has precluded analysis of associated clinicopathologic abnormalities. Information on the prevalence of infection

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Kauffman CA . Changing epidemiology of rare mould infections: implications for therapy . Drugs 2007 ; 67 : 1803 – 1812 . 10.2165/00003495-200767130-00001 2. Shao PL Huang LM Hsueh PR . Recent advances and challenges in the treatment of

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

, et al, eds. Dictionary of veterinary epidemiology . Ames, Iowa : Iowa State University Press , 1999 : 227 . 33. Fite RW . Animal health risk assessment in theory and practice . J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000 ; 217 : 1837 – 1842 . 10.2460/javma

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

, striped skunks, mountain lions, bobcats, tree squirrels, California ground squirrels, and red foxes. Unlike many previous studies in North American wildlife that used only serologic methods to investigate the epidemiology of Leptospira spp, 36–44 our

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

; 198 : 419 – 422 . 10. USDA . Dairy. Part IV: reference of dairy cattle health and management practices in the United States . Bulletin No. N480.1007. Fort Collins, Colo : USDA, APHIS, Veterinary Services, Centers for Epidemiology and Animal

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

care. 13 This finding warrants further investigation into the potential role of aqueous environments in the epidemiology of infection. Several other onygenalean mycotic agents of veterinary importance have been shown to exhibit environmental

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association