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after birth and were fed a commercial colostrum replacer, a which was prepared in accordance with the manufacturer's directions. Each calf received two 225-g bags of colostrum replacer within 2 hours after birth and again at 6 hours old. All calves were

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Ovine contagious foot rot may cause lameness in sheep, resulting in decreased wool growth and low weight gain. Affected neonatal lambs are difficult to treat, and treatment is labor intensive; thus, a method of prevention is warranted.

Vaccination of ewes with a multivalent vaccine in an oil adjuvant induced development of antibody to the somatic O antigen of Bacteroides nodosus, and this antibody was detected in serum of newborn lambs after consumption of colostrum from the vaccinated ewes. Antibody titers were determined in 48 unvaccinated ewe/lamb pairs, and in 50 once-vaccinated and 78 twice-vaccinated pairs. Serum and colostrum O-agglutinin titers to B nodosus were determined by a microtitration agglutination test. Lambs from vaccinated ewes had significantly (P < 0.05) higher O-agglutinin titers than those from unvaccinated ewes, and double vaccination of ewes resulted in the highest potentially protective titers (>1:2,400) in ewes and lambs.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effects of pasteurization of colostrum on serum lactoferrin concentration and neutrophil oxidative function by comparing values from calves given pasteurized (76 C, 15 minutes) colostrum versus calves given fresh frozen colostrum.

Animals—8 Holstein bull calves were used to study the effects of pasteurization of colostrum on the absorption of lactoferrin and neutrophil oxidative burst. Three additional calves were used to study the effect of exogenous lactoferrin on neutrophil oxidative burst.

Methods—Calves were fed fresh frozen or heat pasteurized colostrum (76 C for 15 minutes) via esophageal feeder within 4 hours of birth. Neutrophils were isolated from whole blood samples. Neutrophil oxidative burst was induced by phorbol ester (300 ng/ml) stimulation of cells (1 × 106 cells) at 37 C. Serum lactoferrin concentrations were compared, using immunoblot analysis. Serum IgG concentrations were determined by radial immunoassay. Comparisons were made between the use of the 2 types of colostrum in calves by measuring subsequent serum IgG and lactoferrin concentrations and neutrophil superoxide production.

Results—Serum IgG and lactoferrin concentrations increased more in calves receiving fresh frozen colostrum. Neutrophil superoxide production was higher in neutrophils prepared from calves receiving fresh frozen colostrum. Colostral lactoferrin addition to neutrophil incubations resulted in increased oxidative burst.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Compared with calves given fresh frozen colostrum, calves given pasteurized colostrum had decreased serum IgG and lactoferrin concentrations and neutrophil superoxide production 24 hours after administration. These results suggest that pasteurizing bovine colostrum at 76 C for 15 minutes has substantial effects on passive transfer of proteins and neutrophil function. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1019–1025)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether serum IgG concentrations in neonatal calves are adversely affected by short-term frozen storage of colostrum.

Design—Prospective study.

Sample Population—Experiment 1 consisted of 10 pairs of Holstein calves (n = 20) fed matched aliquots of either fresh (n = 10) or frozen and thawed (10) colostrum. In experiment 2, 26 Holstein calves were fed either fresh (n = 13) or frozen and thawed (n = 13) colostrum.

Procedure—Experiment 1 consisted of calves resulting from observed parturitions; calves were randomly assigned to treatment groups (fresh or frozen and thawed colostrum) in pairs. Calves were fed 4 L aliquots of colostrum via oroesophageal intubation at 3 hours of age. Serum IgG concentrations at 2 days of age were compared between the 2 groups by use of a paired t-test. Experiment 2 consisted of calves resulting from observed parturitions; calves were randomly assigned to treatment groups (fresh or frozen and thawed colostrum). Calves were fed 4 L aliquots of colostrum via oroesophageal intubation at 3 hours of age. Regression analysis was used to determine whether calf serum IgG concentration was a function of colostral IgG concentration and colostrum storage group.

Results—Significant differences were not observed between the 2 groups in experiment 1. No significant relationship was observed between colostrum storage group and serum IgG concentration in experiment 2. The model that best predicted serum IgG concentrations accounted for 20% of the variability in serum IgG concentration.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Frozen colostrum is an adequate source of IgG for calves. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;219:357–359)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To estimate the marginal contribution of pasteurization of waste milk and colostrum to gross margin per calf at weaning and to estimate the minimum number of cattle on a dairy farm for pasteurization to be profitable.

Design

Randomized, controlled, clinical trial.

Animals

300 Holstein calves.

Procedure

The performance of calves fed pasteurized colostrum and waste milk was compared with the performance of calves fed nonpasteurized colostrum and waste milk. Costs, revenues, and gross margins for the 2 groups were compared.

Results

Calves fed pasteurized colostrum and waste milk were worth an extra $8.13 in gross margin/calf, compared with calves fed nonpasteurized colostrum and waste milk. The minimum number of cattle for which feeding pasteurized colostrum and waste milk was calculated to be economically feasible was 315 calves/d (1,260-cow dairy farm).

Clinical Implications

An economic benefit was associated with feeding pasteurized colostrum and waste milk. Additional benefits that may accrue include higher mean weight gain and lower mortality rate of calves as well as calves that have fewer days in which they are affected with diarrhea and pneumonia (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;209:751–756)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Mycobacterial culture was performed on colostrum, milk, and feces from 126 clinically normal cows of a single herd with high prevalence of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis infection. Thirty-six (28.6%) cows were determined to be shedding the organism in the feces. Of the 36 fecal culture-positive cows, M paratuberculosis was isolated from the colostrum of 8 (22.2%) and from the milk of 3 (8.3%). Cows that were heavy fecal shedders were more likely to shed the organism in the colostrum than were light fecal shedders.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate equine IgG as a treatment for kittens with failure of passive transfer of immunity (FPT).

Animals—13 specific pathogen-free queens and their 77 kittens.

Procedure—Kittens were randomized at birth into 9 treatment groups. One group contained colostrumfed (nursing) kittens; the other groups contained colostrum-deprived kittens that were administered supplemental feline or equine IgG PO or SC during the first 12 hours after birth. Blood samples were collected at serial time points from birth to 56 days of age for determination of serum IgG concentrations. The capacity of equine IgG to opsonize bacteria for phagocytosis by feline neutrophils was determined via flow cytometry.

Results—Kittens that received feline or equine IgG SC had significantly higher serum IgG concentrations than those of kittens that received the supplements PO. In kittens that were administered supplemental IgG SC, serum IgG concentrations were considered adequate for protection against infection. The half-life of IgG in kittens treated with equine IgG was shorter than that in kittens treated with feline IgG. Feline IgG significantly enhanced the phagocytosis of bacteria by feline neutrophils, but equine IgG did not.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Serum concentrations of equine IgG that are considered protective against infection are easily attained in kittens, but the failure of these antibodies to promote bacterial phagocytosis in vitro suggests that equine IgG may be an inappropriate treatment for FPT in kittens. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:969–975)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To determine whether Mycobacterium paratuberculosis could survive in colostrum after pasteurization. Additionally, this study investigated the effect pasteurization had on IgG concentration in colostrum.

Animals

Colostrum samples were collected from cattle (beef and dairy) owned by the state of Ohio.

Procedure

Colostrum was divided into aliquots and inoculated with variable concentrations of M paratuberculosis (ATCC No. 19698: 104, 103, and 102 colony-forming units/ml). Half the samples at each concentration were subjected to pasteurization temperatures (63 C) for 30 minutes and the remainder were kept at approximately 20 to 23 C. All samples were incubated (Herrold's egg yolk medium with and without mycobactin J) and observed for growth during the next 16 weeks. Additionally, the IgG concentration of colostrum was determined by radioimmunoassay before and after pasteurization. Samples that coagulated at pasteurization temperatures were mechanically resuspended before measurement of IgG concentration.

Results

Growth of M paratuberculosis was retarded but not eliminated by pasteurization. Growth was observed in all unpasteurized samples incubated on Herrold's egg yolk medium with mycobactin J but in only 2 of 18 pasteurized samples similarly cultured. Growth from pasteurized samples appeared 5 to 9 weeks after growth was observed from nonpasteurized samples.

Mean colostral IgG concentration was 44.4 g/L in nonpasteurized samples and 37.2 g/L in pasteurized sample, a decrease of 12.3%. High-quality colostrum (> 48 g of IgG/L) had a significantly greater loss of IgG concentration than did colostrum of lesser quality (P = 0.002).

Conclusions

Pasteurization lessened, but did not eliminate, growth of M paratuberculosis from experimentally inoculated colostrum samples. Pasteurization resulted in a significant decrease in colostral IgG concentration but not to an unmanageable level that would preclude the colostrum's use for passive transfer of immunity.

Clinical Relevance

Colostrum is macrophage rich and may serve as a source of M paratuberculosis infection to calves. Pasteurization of colostrum may lessen the risk of infection, but will not totally eliminate M paratuberculosis. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:1580–1585)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

We examined the effect of infusion of lipopolysaccharide (lps) on serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (tnfα) concentration and clinical attitude in 2- to 3-day-old colostrum-fed (cf) and colostrum-deprived (cd) foals. Eleven cf and 8 cd neonatal foals were given a bolus IV infusion of Escherichia coli O55:B5 lipopolysaccharide (0.5 µg kg of body weight) in sterile saline (0.9% NaCl) solution. Four cf and 2 cd foals were given saline solution alone. Serum IgG concentration and serum anti-lps IgG(T) antibody titer were determined for each foal prior to infusion. A depression index was used to score clinical abnormalities. Serum tnfα concentration was estimated by use of an in vitro cytotoxicity bioassay that used WEHI 164 clone 13 cells as targets. The cytotoxic serum factor was identified as tnfα by immunoprecipitation with caprine antisera raised against the 15 NH2- terminal amino acids of human tnfα. Tumor necrosis factor alpha was not detected in any preiniusion serum samples nor in any samples from foals given saline solution alone. Serum tnfα concentration increased in all lps-infused foals and peaked between 60 and 90 minutes after infusion. Serum tnfα concentrations, expressed as mean percentage of peak serum tnfα concentration, persisted longer in cd foals given lps than in cf foals given lps. All lps-infused foals displayed clinical signs of endotoxemia, but mean depression index scores of the cf and cd foals given lps were not significantly different at any time. Serum tnfα concentrations were correlated with depression index scores in both lps-infused groups. Mean rectal temperature increased by 1 hour and remained high for 4 hours after infusion in cf foals given lps . Mean rectal temperature in cd foals given lps was significantly less than that for cf foals given lps 1 and 2 hours after infusion and was higher than mean rectal temperature prior to infusion 3 and 4 hours after infusion. Neither preinfusion total serum IgG concentration nor serum anti-lps IgG(T) antibody titer correlated with peak serum tnfα concentration in the 19 lps-infused foals.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Analysis of hepatic enzyme activities in serum samples from 1- to 3-day-old pups revealed alkaline phosphatase (alp) activities that were 30 times higher and γ-glutamyltransferase (ggt) activities that were 100 times higher than activities in clinically normal adult dogs. A study was conducted to investigate high enzyme activity in pups and to determine whether there is any association between serum enzyme activity and colostrum ingestion, passive transfer of maternal serum enzyme (in colostrum or in utero), or excessive renal or hepatic tissue enzymes. Serum enzyme activity was quantified in 15 neonatal pups before and after ingestion of colostrum and in 3 colostrum-deprived neonates fed a milk substitute. Serum samples were collected on postpartum days 0, 1, 10, 15, and 30. Enzyme activity was also quantified in serum from pregnant and lactating bitches (collected on days -2, 0, 1, 10, 30), hepatic and renal tissue from clinically normal adult dogs and 1-day-old pups, colostrum, milk (collected on days 10 and 30), and milk replacer.

Significant (P < 0.01) differences in serum ggt and alp activities between colostrum-deprived and suckling pups did not exist before initial feeding. Significant (P < 0.001) increases in serum ggt and alp activities developed within 24 hours in suckling pups, but not in the colostrum-deprived pups. At 10 and 30 days after birth, serum ggt and alp activities were less than values before suckling in all pups.

Enzyme activities in bitches’ serum remained within the normal range for adult dogs throughout whelping and lactation. Renal ggt and alp activities were substantially greater than hepatic enzyme activities in neonates and adults. Renal tissue from adults contained 3 times greater ggt and 2 times greater alp activities than that from neonates. Hepatic tissue from neonates contained 5 times more ggt activity than did hepatic tissues from clinically normal adults; however, hepatic alp activity was similar in adults and neonates.

Colostrum and milk had substantially higher enzyme activities than did bitches’ serum. Activities of ggt and alp in milk were 100 times and 10 times greater, respectively, than activities in serum through day 10. By day 30, ggt and alp activities in milk were less than before suckling. Enzyme activity was not detected in the milk substitute.

These studies reveal an association between colostrum ingestion by suckling and acute, profound increases in serum ggt and alp in 1- to 3-day-old pups. Although this phenomenon might be useful as an indicator of colostrum ingestion, it precludes the diagnostic use of either enzyme as an indicator of hepatobiliary disease in 3-day-old pups.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research