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celiotomy was recommended to the owner. The horse was anesthetized and positioned in dorsal recumbency. A right paramedian laparotomy incision was performed. Exploration of the abdomen revealed that the large colon was incarcerated in a diaphragmatic defect

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

-certified veterinary surgeon who was experienced in avian surgery (RAB). The surgeon used 3.5× surgical loupes. f Intraoperative and postoperative complications were recorded. For each bird, a left lateral celiotomy was performed as previously described. 1–4 In all

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

previous findings of a relative monocytosis (4%), hyperkalemia (potassium, 7.5 mmol/L), and high in aspartate aminotransferase and creatine phosphokinase activities. On the basis of the clinical deterioration of the bird, a celiotomy was planned to address

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

probable because there was no history of previous trauma for this rabbit. Further diagnostic imaging with CT and exploratory celiotomy were declined by the owner. Figure 1— Right lateral (A) and ventrodorsal (B) radiographic views of the thorax and

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

/dL). Serum amylase and lipase activities and triglycerides and bile acids concentrations were all within reference limits. Because of the suspicion of a nephrosplenic entrapment as well as the history of chronic colic, an exploratory celiotomy was performed

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

performed via celiotomy; gastropexies performed using laparoscopy were excluded from this study. Cases were grouped on the basis of surgical method (either SIG or MIG). Surgery reports were reviewed to determine surgical method (SIG or MIG), record the

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

for surgery according to standard hospital protocol. A ventral midline celiotomy revealed a right intra-abdominal testis as well as multiple ligatures of chromic gut and polydioxanone suture material at the bladder neck and the urethral stump. The

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

thoroughly lavage the abdomen, general anesthesia was induced and a routine ventral midline celiotomy performed. A minimal amount of fecal particulate matter was observed. Evacuation of intestinal contents was performed by means of a pelvic flexure enterotomy

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

clinical improvement, it was decided to perform an exploratory celiotomy for further examination and biopsy of the gastrointestinal tract. The eagle was premedicated with midazolam and butorphanol; anesthesia was induced and maintained with isoflurane in

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

, and echogenic material within these vessels was a result of thrombosis (arrow). Notice that the wall of the portal vessel is prominent because surrounding liver parenchyma is hypoechoic. Exploratory celiotomy and liver lobectomy were performed in

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association