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coli were included in the study when > 10 2 CFUs/mL of the bacteria were recovered. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing —Susceptibility testing of rectal and urinary E coli isolates was performed via the disk diffusion method according to

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

-guided cystocentesis. Urinalysis revealed the presence of calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate, and triple phosphate crystals. Results of bacterial culture of urine and antimicrobial susceptibility testing indicated multidrug-resistant Proteus spp. The decision was

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

al 7 of bacterial culture in mares in Italy and antimicrobial susceptibility testing for amikacin (11%, compared with 48%) and oxytetracycline (12%, compared with 44%). This may be due to breeding population, environmental issues, or antimicrobial

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing —Isolates were assessed for susceptibility to 16 antimicrobials. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of isolates were determined by use of a semiautomated antimicrobial susceptibility system d and interpreted according to the

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

dilution susceptibility tests for bacteria isolated from animals; approved standards . CLSI document VET01–A4. Wayne, Pa : CLSI , 2013 . 19. Riesenberg A , Feßler AT , Frömke C , Harmonization of antimicrobial susceptibility testing by

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

fed milk substitute . J Hyg (Lond) 1983 ; 91 : 33 – 45 . 10.1017/S0022172400060009 13 Bauer AW Kirby WM Sherris JC , Antimicrobial susceptibility testing by a standardized single disk method . Am J Clin Pathol 1966 ; 45 : 493 – 496 . 10

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether depopulation-repopulation could be used to eradicate Salmonella serotype Typhimurium DT104 from a commercial swine farm in the midwestern United States.

Design—Observational study.

Sample Population—A commercial swine farm undergoing depopulation-repopulation to eliminate porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

Procedure—Pooled fecal samples, tissue samples, and serum samples were collected from pigs on the farm before and after depopulation-repopulation. When there were no pigs on the farm, environmental swab specimens were collected for bacterial culture. Serum was analyzed for anti-Salmonella antibodies with an indirect ELISA. Salmonella isolates obtained by bacterial culture of fecal, tissue, and environmental samples were characterized by means of serotyping, phage typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and antimicrobial susceptibility testing.

Results—167 Salmonella isolates representing 9 serotypes were recovered from the farm. Results of PFGE and antimicrobial susceptibility testing suggested that S Typhimurium DT104 strain was not eradicated from the farm. However, seroprevalence of anti-Salmonella antibodies and the percentage of pooled fecal samples positive for Salmonella spp were significantly decreased following repopulation.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that depopulation-repopulation in conjunction with stringent cleaning and disinfection, attention to biosecurity procedures, control of other diseases, and changes in feed management may reduce the occurrence of, but likely will not eliminate, Salmonella spp in commercial swine herds. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:460–466)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the extent of environmental contamination with Salmonella enterica in a veterinary teaching hospital.

Design—Longitudinal study.

Samples—Environmental samples obtained from 69 representative locations within a veterinary teaching hospital by use of a commercially available electrostatic wipe.

Procedure—Environmental samples were obtained for bacteriologic culture, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed on each environmental isolate. Environmental isolates were compared with isolates obtained from animals during the same period to investigate potential sources of environmental contamination.

Results—54 S enterica isolates were recovered from 452 (11.9%) cultured environmental samples .Five different serotypes were recovered; the most common serotypes were S Newport and S Agona. Within the 5 serotypes recovered, 10 distinguishable phenotypes were identified by use of serotype and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. Of the environmental isolates, 41 of 54 (75.9%) could be matched to phenotypes of isolates obtained from animal submissions in the month prior to collection of environmental samples.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that environments in veterinary hospitals can be frequently contaminated with S enterica near where infected animals are managed and fecal specimens containing S enterica are processed for culture in a diagnostic laboratory. Bacteriologic culture of environmental samples collected with electrostatic wipes is an effective means of detecting contamination in a veterinary hospital environment and may be beneficial as part of surveillance activities for other veterinary and animal-rearing facilities. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:1344–1348)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine features of postoperative wound infection caused by Actinobacillus spp in horses undergoing clean, elective surgery and to evaluate bacterial susceptibility profiles of bacteria isolated.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—10 horses.

Procedure—Data were retrieved from medical records and the microbiology laboratory database.

Results—1,604 horses underwent clean, elective surgical procedures during the study period. Of these, 23 (1.43%) had postoperative wound infections, and Actinobacillus spp was isolated from 10 of these 23 (43%). Surgical procedures in these 10 horses included laryngoplasty with ventriculocordectomy (n = 3), arthroscopy (3), desmotomy of the accessory ligament of the superficial digital flexor tendon (2), removal of laryngoplasty prostheses (1), and hygroma resection (1). Seven horses survived, and 3 were euthanatized. All 10 Actinobacillus isolates were resistant to penicillin, and 6 were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. All isolates were susceptible to ceftiofur and gentamicin. During the 5-year period of the study, Actinobacillus organisms were isolated from 35 of 513 (6.8%) samples from the general hospital population submitted for bacterial culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—During the study period, Actinobacillus spp was isolated from a higher than expected percentage of horses that developed postoperative wound infections after clean, elective surgery. Susceptibility profiles for these isolates were different from typical susceptibility profiles for Actinobacillus isolates, suggesting that a pattern of resistance may be emerging. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:1306–1310)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Salmonella isolates from feedlot cattle.

Design—Cross-sectional study.

Sample Population—263 Salmonella isolates.

Procedures—Fecal samples were collected from the floor of 2 pens in each of 100 feedlots. Two hundred eighty Salmonella isolates were recovered after bacteriologic culture from 38 pens. Of these, 263 isolates were available for antimicrobial susceptibility testing to 16 antimicrobials, using microbroth dilution breakpoint plates.

Results—Less than 5% of isolates were resistant to any of the antimicrobials tested, with the exception of sulfamethoxazole (15; 5.7%) and tetracycline (61; 23.2%). Most isolates (197; 74.9%) were susceptible to all antimicrobials tested, whereas 18 (6.8%) were resistant to 2 or more antimicrobials. The percentage of isolates with resistance to any antimicrobial varied by serotype. The percentage of isolates resistant to various antimicrobials was not related to concurrent use of antimicrobials in the feed.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—With the exception of tetracycline and sulfamethoxazole, resistance of Salmonella isolates to any of the antimicrobials was uncommon. Most isolates were susceptible to all antimicrobials tested. Antimicrobial resistance was not related to the presence of antimicrobials in the ration being fed at the time of sample collection. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:268–272)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association