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vector-neutralizing antibodies induced by prior administration of an rAAV-based gene therapy. ABBREVIATIONS AAV Adeno-associated viral vector BPC Bioluminescence per cell ffl Firefly luciferase GC Genome copy MSC Mesenchymal stromal

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

of autologous cells such as bone marrow stromal cells, which have been characterized as MSCs. 11 Recently, the use of autologous bone marrow–derived MSCs to treat superficial flexor tendon injuries has been reported. 12 Mesenchymal stem cells have

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

pathologic changes. The purpose of the study reported here therefore was to map the cellular distribution and phenotypic alteration of the predominant stromal cell population throughout the entire valve length of dogs with MMVD. This was achieved by use of

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

The mechanism of estrogen-induced myelotoxicosis is unknown, although evidence indicates that estrogen does not directly damage the bone marrow granulocyte-macrophage progenitor cells and that the thymus is a probable mediator of the bone marrow suppression. Estrogen-induced production of a myelopoiesis-inhibitory factor by canine thymic stromal cells in vitro has been observed. Then, presence of a myelopoiesis-inhibitory factor in canine serum was investigated immediately after estrogen administration in vivo. Maximal reduction in colony-forming units-granulocyte/macrophage growth by sera from individual dogs varied. Individual dog sensitivity to estrogen-induced myelotoxicosis is seen clinically, and the cause is unknown. This serum factor could have a role in the eventual bone marrow hypoplasia seen in estrogen-treated dogs and is possibly the same factor produced by cultured thymic stromal cells exposed to estrogen.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To examine age-related efficacy of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2, ascorbate, and dexamethasone as osteogenic inducers in canine marrow-derived stromal cells (MSCs).

Sample Population—Samples of femoral bone marrow obtained from 15 skeletally immature (< 1 year old) and 4 skeletally mature (> 1.5 years old) dogs.

Procedure—First-passage canine MSC cultures were treated with 100 µg of ascorbate phosphate/mL, 10–7M dexamethasone, 100 ng of BMP-2/mL, or a combination of these osteoinducers. On day 6, cultures were harvested for quantitation of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and isolation of RNA to prepare cDNA for real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses of osteoblast markers.

Results—Early markers of osteogenesis were induced in canine MSCs by BMP-2 but not dexamethasone. In young dogs, the combination of BMP- 2 and ascorbate yielded the highest ALP mRNA concentrations and activity. This combination also induced significant increases in mRNA for osteopontin and runt-domain transcription factor 2. In comparison to MSCs from immature dogs, those from mature dogs had diminished ALP activity in response to BMP and ascorbate. Results for cultures treated with 3,4-dehydroproline suggested that ascorbateinduced production of extracellular matrix was important for maximal BMP-2 response in canine MSCs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—BMP-2 was capable of inducing markers of osteogenesis in shortterm cultures of canine MSCs. In MSCs obtained from skeletally immature dogs, ascorbate was required for maximal effects of BMP. These results define optimal conditions for stem cell osteogenesis in dogs and will facilitate development of stem cell–based treatments for dogs with fractures. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1729–1737)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To compare experimentally induced concurrent bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) infection with single virus infection.

Animals

9- to 12-month-old calves.

Procedure

Calves were allotted to 4 groups: 1, mock-infected control (n = 3); 2, BRSV infected (5); 3, BVDV infected (5); and 4, concurrent BRSV and BVDV infected (5). Total and differential WBC counting was done. Concentration and duration of BVDV in nasal secretions and serum, and duration of BRSV in nasal secretions were determined. Concentration of BVDV in various tissues was determined, and isolation of BRSV from lung tissue was attempted. Histologic examination and immunohistochemical analysis were done to detect lesions and distribution of viral antigens, respectively.

Results

Calves with concurrent infection developed more severe clinical signs of disease (fever and diarrhea), leukopenia, and more severe lesions. They also shed virus from nasal secretions in greater concentration and for longer duration, and BRSV was isolated from their lungs. Calves with concurrent infection also had more extensive lung lesions. Alimentary epithelial necrosis and severe lymphoid depletion were associated with BVDV infection in calves with or without concurrent BRSV infection. BVDV antigen in lymphatic tissue was detected in stromal cells only.

Conclusions

Concurrent infection with BRSV and BVDV resulted in more severe respiratory tract and enteric disease than did infection with either virus alone, possibly indicating synergistic effect between the viruses. BVDV’s role in causing respiratory tract disease is attributable, indirectly, to effects on the host’s immune system, not to infection of the lungs. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:1423–1430)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research
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application of PRP in the dog. Next, Webb et al 2 , 3 present 2 scoping reviews of the clinical use of mesenchymal stem and stromal cell (MSC) products in cats . First, Webb et al consider the current logistics and safety surrounding MSC products, 2 then

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Bone marrow–derived MSCs, also referred to as bone marrow stromal cells, have gained considerable attention as a source for cellular transplantation treatments for animals with a number of diseases because of their proliferative capacity

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

enhance MSC function and subsequently, tendon healing. 5 , 64 , 65 Modulation of endogenous and retention of exogenous stromal cells Endogenous stromal cells, primarily those of tenocytes and TSPCs are a key cell population of the tendon

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

)–derived stromal cells that had begun to form a fibrous stroma in an initial attempt to repair the necrotic adipose tissue and had also begun to activate neovascular invasion of repair vessels from the surface of the bone. In time, they would have together with the

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association