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Summary

Malignant digital tumors were diagnosed in 62 dogs during a 1-year period. Twenty-one (33.9%) of the dogs had subungual squamous cell carcinoma. Each of these dogs had involvement of single digits. Sixteen (76.2%) of the dogs with squamous cell carcinoma were large-breed dogs, and 15 (71.4%) had predominantly black coats. Labrador Retrievers (n = 5,23.8%) and Standard Poodles (n = 3,14.3%) were the most commonly represented purebreeds. None of the dogs had evidence of metastases prior to treatment. All 21 tumors were treated by amputation of the involved digit. Histologic evidence of neoplastic bone invasion was found in 15 of the 21 amputated digits (71.4%). Local tumor recurrences were not observed. Only 1 dog developed documented metastatic disease; this dog was euthanatized because of pulmonary metastases 5 months after surgery. At the time of this report, 9 dogs (42.9%) were alive with no evidence of disease (median, 26 months after surgery), and 11 dogs (52.4%) had died or were euthanatized (median, 20 months after surgery). The cause of death in 7 dogs was known to be unrelated to squamous cell carcinoma, and the cause of death in 4 dogs was unknown. The 1-year and 2-year survival rates were 76.2% and 42.9%, respectively.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To develop a slow-release carboplatin formulation for intratumoral administration to cats.

Design

Preliminary study to analyze pharmacokinetic effects of purified sesame oil in the carboplatin formulation for intratumoral administration, and a second study to evaluate the efficacy and toxicosis of intratumoral administration of carboplatin in purified sesame oil.

Animals

23 cats with squamous cell carcinomas of the nasal plane.

Procedure

Eight cats with advanced-stage tumors were submitted to intratumoral administration of 100 mg of carboplatin/m2 of body surface area, with or without purified sesame oil, using a two-period, cross-over design. Fifteen additional cats were treated by intratumoral administration of carboplatin in purified sesame oil. Four weekly intratumoral chemotherapy injections of carboplatin in purified sesame oil at a dosage of 1.5 mg/cm3 of tissue were given.

Results

Purified sesame oil in the formulation significantly reduced systemic exposure to carboplatin and drug leakage from the sites of injection. Cumulative effects of repeated intratumoral administrations on plasma concentrations of carboplatin were not observed. Systemic toxicosis was not observed, and local toxicosis was minimal. Healing of ulcerated lesions was not compromised. Rates of complete clinical tumor clearance and complete response were 67 and 73.3%, respectively. Product-limit estimates of mean progression-free survival times was 16 ± 3.3 months. The 1-year progression-free survival rate was 55.1 ± 13%. Local recurrence was observed in 7 cats; 4 had marginal tumor recurrence, and 3 had in-field and marginal tumor recurrence.

Conclusions

Intratumoral carboplatin chemotherapy is safe and effective for cats with squamous cell carcinoma of the nasal plane. Future studies to improve treatment efficacy could include evaluation of increased dose-intensity as well as combination of this modality with radiotherapy.

Clinical Relevance

Intratumoral administration of carboplatin in a water-sesame-oil emulsion was found to be a practical and effective new treatment for facial squamous cell carcinomas in cats.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary:

Eighteen random-bred cats with a total of 19 nasal or aural squamous cell carcinomas were treated with photodynamic therapy, using aluminum phthalocyanine tetrasulfhonate as the photosensitizer. Cats were irradiated at power densities of 100 mW/cm2 and energy densities of 100 J/cm2. Successful outcome was obtained in 10 tumors after 1 treatment, and 2 more tumors had complete responses after 1 or 2 additional treatments. Treatments were more effective in tumors of stage T2 or earlier. Five tumors had partial responses, and the response of 2 tumors could not be evaluated. The treatment was safe and well tolerated by most cats, although we found that cats should be kept out of sunlight for 2 weeks after treatment.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To compare therapeutic benefits of intratumoral administration of cisplatin and bleomycin for squamous cell carcinoma of the eyelids in horses.

Animals

25 horses with 27 T2-stage periocular squamous cell carcinomas.

Procedure

Horses were treated 4 times at 2-week intervals with a slow-release formulation of cisplatin (1 mg/cm3 of tissue) or bleomycin (1 IU/cm3 of tissue). A two-stage design was used to minimize the sample size in each treatment arm.

Results

The local control rate at 1 year for lesions treated with cisplatin was 93 ± 6%, and with bleomycin was 78 ± 10%. Difference in local control duration between the 2 treatment groups was not significantly different. A high tumor proliferative fraction index value was associated with a higher local (in-field) control rate, but also with a higher risk of marginal and regional recurrences. Tumors with a low proliferative fraction index value (< 28%) had 9.5-times higher (P = 0.0411) risk of recurrence than those with a high index value. Local acute reactions were similar in the 2 treatment groups, and chronic reactions were not observed.

Conclusions

Cisplatin and bleomycin were effective anticancer agents for carcinoma of the eyelid in horses. Based on therapeutic benefit and treatment cost, cisplatin was found to be a better choice for intratumoral chemotherapy of eyelid carcinomas.

Clinical Relevance

Results of this study confirm the value of intratumoral chemotherapy, using cisplatin, for treatment of cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas in horses. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:431–436)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Between January 1978 and December 1988, 147 horses with ocular/adnexal squamous cell carcinoma (scc) were admitted to the Colorado State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital (CSU-VTH). Diagnosis was conjirmed by histologic examination of appropriate tissue specimens. Medical records and communication with owners, referring veterinarians, or both provided information regarding initial examination, treatment at the CSU-VTH, and final outcome. At initial examination, 123 (83.7%) horses had unilateral involvement and 24 (16.3%) horses had bilateral involvement. The nictitating membrane, nasal canthus, or both (28.1%); limbus (27.5%); and eyelid (22.8%) were most commonly affected. In addition to the ocular/adnexal location, scc was found elsewhere in 14 (9.5%) horses at initial examination. Adequate follow-up (≥ 4 months) for examination of tumor recurrence and survival analysis was obtained for 125 (85.0%) cases. After treatment at the CSU-VTH, tumor recurred in 30.4% of the cases. Tumor location, multiple vs single tumors at initial diagnosis, and CSU-VTH treatment modality influenced the recurrence of tumors. Survival analysis revealed a good prognosis for horses with ocular/adnexal scc. Although undefined, a conservative estimate of the median survival time was 47 months. Six factors (treatment prior to referral, tumor location, tumor size, single or multiple tumors, treatment modality at the CSU-VTH, and recurrence or nonrecurrence) were analyzed to determine their relation with survival. Treatment prior to referral, multiple vs single tumors at initial examination, and treatment modality used at the CSU-VTH did not influence survival. Tumor location influenced survival; scc involving the eyelid or orbit was associated with the poorest prognosis. Tumor stage (maximal dimension) was inversely related with survival. One or more recurrences of scc markedly reduced the likelihood of survival.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Seven cats with squamous cell carcinoma involving the mandible were treated by surgery and radiotherapy. Surgery consisted of hemimandibulectomy or combined rostral and hemimandibulectomy, gastrostomy tube placement, and submandibular lymph node excisional biopsy. Radiotherapy (orthovoltage or 60Co) commenced 2 weeks after surgery. Histologically, the tumor invaded surgical margins in 6 of 7 cats. Nerve infiltration was histologically identified in 2 cats. All cats had stage-3 disease with radiographic evidence of mandibular bone involvement. Age ranged between 8 and 16 years (median, 10 years). Hypercalcemia (2), feline immunodeficiency virus (2), and hyperthyroidism (1), were detected in cats prior to treatment. Survival after surgery,) was a median of 14 months (range = 3 to 36 months, mean = 15 months). Six cats were euthanatized because of recurrence of disease at 3, 7, 9, 16, 21, and 36 months. One cat was euthanatized at 14 months because of an unrelated disease. Complications of tongue lagging, drooling after meals, mandibular drift, maxillary ulceration, and alopecia of the jaw developed in a few cats. Radiation at the primary site and regional lymph nodes after surgery of curative intent extended survival in cats with mandibular squamous cell carcinoma.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Although the cause of bovine ocular squamous cell carcinoma (boscc) is attributed to viruses in addition to cofactors (eg, uv light), to our knowledge, the final causative agent has not been described. Bovine papilloma virus (bpv)- like particles were detected in approximately 33% of various putative precursor lesions of boscc. In contrast, it was reported that, using bpv-specific antibodies, it was not possible to detect viral antigens in boscc. Fourteen established boscc and 9 boscc-derived cell lines were examined for bpv dna. Probes of all 6 known bpv types were used in various hybridization assays. Neither Southern blot analysis, under high and low stringency conditions, nor in situ hybridization resulted in detection of bpv dna. Papilloma viruses were not observed in electron microscopic studies. Results exclude direct association between boscc and bpv types 1 to 6, or as yet unknown closely related bpv types. However, bpv may contribute to induction of precursor lesions or events leading to carcinogenic transformation, without being relevant for maintenance of the tumor.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of cisplatin administered with piroxicam, the antitumor activity and toxicity of cisplatin combined with piroxicam in dogs with oral malignant melanoma (OMM) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and the effects of piroxicam on the pharmacokinetics of cisplatin in dogs with tumors.

Design—Prospective nonrandomized clinical trial.

Animals—25 dogs.

Procedure—Dogs were treated with a combination of cisplatin (escalating dose with 6 hours of diuresis with saline [0.9% NaCl] solution) and piroxicam (0.3 mg/kg [0.14 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h). The initial cisplatin dose (50 mg/m2) was increased by 5 mg/m2 until the MTD was reached. Tumor stage and size were determined at 6-week intervals during treatment. The pharmacokinetics of cisplatin were determined in dogs receiving a combination of cisplatin and piroxicam during the clinical trial and dogs that were treated with cisplatin alone.

Results—11 dogs with OMM and 9 dogs with SCC were included in the clinical trial. The MTD of cisplatin when administered in combination with piroxicam was 50 mg/m2. Tumor remission occurred in 5 of 9 dogs with SCC and 2 of 11 dogs with OMM. The most common abnormality observed was renal toxicosis. Clearance of cisplatin in dogs that were treated with cisplatin alone was not significantly different from that in dogs treated with a combination of cisplatin and piroxicam.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Cisplatin administered in combination with piroxicam had antitumor activity against OMM and SCC. The level of toxicity was acceptable, although renal function must be monitored carefully. ( J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;224:388–394)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To determine the benefits of reducing the interval between surgical cytoreduction and intratumoral administration of cisplatin.

Design

Randomized clinical study.

Animals

70 horses with 89 incompletely resected T2- and T3-stage sarcoids (n = 64) and squamous cell carcinomas (25).

Procedure

Horses were given 4 intratumoral treatments of cisplatin at 2-week intervals. The first treatment was given at the time of, or immediately after, surgical resection for horses treated in accordance with the perioperative protocol (group 1). Horses in group 2 were treated with cisplatin after the skin healed following surgical resection in accordance with the postoperative protocol.

Results

A difference was not found in duration of overall local tumor control between the 2 groups. Patterns of treatment failures and interval to failure differed between the 2 groups. Length of the surgical scar was the only factor that affected prognosis; an increase in length was associated with a poorer prognosis. A detrimental effect of postoperative treatment was only found in tumors with a high tumor proliferative fraction. Local reactions were similar for the 2 treatment groups, and chronic reactions were not observed.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Intratumoral administration of cisplatin is beneficial for treatment of cutaneous tumors in horses. Tumor repopulation during the interval between surgery and intratumoral administration of cisplatin decreases treatment efficacy. These results provide evidence of rapid tumor repopulation following surgical resection without a lag period for tumors with a high proliferation index. When tumor proliferation index is not known, it may be prudent to use the perioperative protocol. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;215:1655–1660)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Ten horses with histologically confirmed squamous cell carcinoma (scc) and 1 horse with presumptive scc of the external genitalia were treated with a combination of surgical debridement and topical administration of 5-fluorouracil, or with topical treatment alone. Tumor remission was obtained in all horses except 1 in which owner compliance was deficient, and no recurrences have been reported. Topical use of 5-fluorouracil as a chemotherapeutic agent for treatment of genital lesions of scc in horses should be considered as a viable alternative to radical surgical excision.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association