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Abstract

Objective—To determine whether a single intranasal dose of modified-live bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) vaccine protects calves from BRSV challenge and characterize cell-mediated immune response in calves following BRSV challenge.

Animals—13 conventionally reared 4- to 6-week-old Holstein calves.

Procedure—Calves received intranasal vaccination with modified live BRSV vaccine (VC-group calves; n = 4) or mock vaccine (MC-group calves; 6) 1 month before BRSV challenge; unvaccinated control-group calves (n = 3) underwent mock challenge. Serum virus neutralizing (VN) antibodies were measured on days –30, -14, 0, and 7 relative to BRSV challenge; nasal swab specimens were collected for virus isolation on days 0 to 7. At necropsy examination on day 7, tissue specimens were collected for measurement of BRSV-specific interferon gamma (IFN-γ) production. Tissue distribution of CD3+ T and BLA.36+ B cells was evaluated by use of immunohistochemistry.

Results—The MC-group calves had significantly higher rectal temperatures, respiratory rates, and clinical scores on days 5 to 7 after BRSV challenge than VCgroup calves. No difference was seen between distributions of BRSV in lung tissue of VC- and MC-group calves. Production of BRSV-specific IFN-γ was increased in tissue specimens from VC-group calves, compared with MC- and control-group calves. Virusspecific IFN-γ production was highest in the mediastinal lymph node of VC-group calves. Increased numbers of T cells were found in expanded bronchialassociated lymphoid tissue and airway epithelium of VC-group calves.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—An intranasal dose of modified-live BRSV vaccine can protect calves against virulent BRSV challenge 1 month later. ( Am J Vet Res 2004;65:363–372)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

respiratory tract–related clinical signs associated with heart disease and an independent variable in predicting L-CHF in multivariable regression analysis. 2 Another study 3 revealed that resolution of the L-CHF resulted in reduction in respiratory rate

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

amphibians, 33 and reptiles. 23 , 26 Because respiratory depression in reptiles may alter arterial blood gases and reduce hypoxic ventilatory responses, leading to hypoxemia and tissue hypoxia, 34 dexmedetomidine-induced respiratory depression in snakes

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

B ovine respiratory disease (BRD) is 1 of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in preweaned dairy calves and is second only to neonatal calf diarrhea as the primary disease syndrome affecting this population. 1 Consequences of BRD

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Bovine respiratory disease is the second leading cause of death in preweaned dairy calves, only exceeded by neonatal calf diarrhea. 1 The estimated annual cost of BRD in preweaned calves is $14.71/calf at risk of disease. 1 Calves are at

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Brachycephalic dogs are at high risk for development of perioperative complications such as regurgitation, aspiration pneumonia, and respiratory distress. 1–4 Dogs such as Pugs, English Bulldogs, French Bulldogs, and Boston Terriers have upper

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

standard for predicting EE is indirect calorimetry, 1 a procedure that measures the consumption of O 2 and production of CO 2 in order to calculate resting EE (REE) and respiratory quotient (RQ). In order to accurately measure these gases, subjects must

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

safely administered to cats. 19 The purpose of the study reported here was to determine the effects of orally administered raltegravir in cats with experimentally induced ocular and respiratory FHV-1 infection. Specifically, we sought to evaluate the

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus is a positive-stranded, enveloped RNA virus that is 50 to 65 nm in diameter with a smooth surface and cuboidal nucleocapsid core that has a diameter of 25 to 35 nm 1,2 Similar to other members

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

P orcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a highly contagious and virulent infectious disease caused by the PRRS virus (PRRSV), which could result in adverse reproductive disorders, including abortion, stillbirth, mummified fetuses

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research