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Understanding of pain in reptiles has expanded greatly within the past 10 years, but some weaknesses remain, particularly with respect to species differences in response to analgesics, identification of optimal analgesics, and determination of the

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

investigated and used for higher-taxa animals, few studies have been conducted to investigate such techniques for reptiles, particularly lizards. Such studies are warranted because almost 300 species of reptiles are in need of conservation efforts, yet the

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

. In reptiles, parenteral drug administration in the caudal half of the body is controversial. 1–6 Venous blood from the tail, and to varying and minor degree from the hind limbs, flows directly to the kidneys via the renal-portal system, whereas blood

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

jugular vein, in accordance with recommendations in the literature for reptiles. 1,2 White blood cells were counted on a hemocytometer. 2 The WBC differential count was determined by microscopic examination of a blood smear that was stained with modified

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Although analgesics or antinociceptive agents are now widely used in domestic animals, their usage has been very limited in reptiles, such as green iguanas ( Iguana iguana ). 1–3 The number of reports 4 of the use of analgesic agents in reptiles

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

of neoplasia in reptiles may be as high as 6.2% (81/1,297). Chemotherapy in reptiles has many challenges, and there is a paucity of information to help guide such treatments. 1 , 8 , 10 , 11 , 12 Among the challenges is the lack of information

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

group of reptiles. Therefore, it is imperative that we pursue evidence-based research focused on closing this informational gap to ensure best practices for these animals. Plasma biochemistry testing is commonly performed as a component of baseline

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

, reduce morbidity and death, and contribute to rapid return to normal activities. 3,4 With respect to analgesic drugs, relevant data for reptiles are lacking even though reptiles are commonly maintained as companion animals and heavily represented in

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Introduction Neurological disorders in reptiles result from infectious diseases, nutritional deficiencies, traumatic injuries, metabolic and circulatory disorders, congenital abnormalities, toxicities, and neoplasms. 1 – 8 In inland bearded

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

of anthracosis at 56.7% (38/67) than mammals at 41.9% (116/277). However, there was no carbon deposition in the reptile species observed (0/6). When the presence of lung deposition of dust was estimated, some species of animals such as the lion

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research