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, the hedgehog was treated for occult parasitic infestation and possible bacterial infections. Treatment consisted of a single dose of fenbendazole (25 mg/kg [11.4 mg/lb], PO) and administration of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (30 mg/kg [13.6 mg/lb], PO

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

conjunction with other screening tests (eg, signalment, history, physical examination, CBC, serum biochemical analysis, urinalysis, and blood pressure) to increase detection of occult disease. Further prospective studies in which the positive and negative

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

In this report, the use of appropriate statistical methods for the evaluation of heartworm immunodiagnostic tests is discussed. The evaluation of these tests is complicated by factors causing variation in sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and predictive values of positive and negative test results. The primary sources of inconsistency are variation in the prevalence of heartworm infection among populations of dogs and the sensitivity of immunodiagnostic tests to various categories of heartworm infections (ie, patent, immune-mediated occult, unisex occult, and immature occult). Sample size (ie, number of dogs tested) affects the confidence limit values of sensitivity and specificity. At least 100 dogs should be used in each testing group (infected and uninfected) to generate values of sensitivity or specificity within reasonably narrow confidence limits. Use of more than 200 dogs in each testing group contributes little to further narrowing of confidence limits. The selection of appropriate statistical tests for comparison of tests or comparison of the sensitivity or specificity of a single diagnostic test to various categories of heartworm infections is critical. The McNemar paired χ2 test is appropriate for comparison of diagnostic tests, but it must be done by use of duplicate sera from each animal. A χ2 test of independence, or, in the case of a small sample size, the Fisher exact test, is appropriate for comparing the sensitivity or specificity of a single diagnostic test to various categories of heartworm infection.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To determine whether administration of misoprostol prevents gastric hemorrhage in healthy dogs treated with high doses of methylprednisolone sodium succinate (MPSS).

Animals

18 healthy hound-type dogs of both sexes.

Procedure

All dogs were given high doses of MPSS (30 mg/kg of body weight, initially, then 15 mg/kg 2 and 6 hours later, and, subsequently, q 6 h for a total of 48 hours) IV. Dogs were assigned randomly to receive concurrent treatment with misoprostol (4 to 6 μg/kg, PO, q 8 h; n = 9) or an empty gelatin capsule (9). Gastroduodenoscopy was performed before and after treatment. Hemorrhage was graded from none (0) to severe (3) for each cardia, fundus, antrum, and duodenum. A total stomach score was calculated as the sum of the regional stomach scores. Food retention was recorded, and pH of gastric fluid was determined. Gastric and fecal occult blood was measured.

Results

Gastric hemorrhage was evident in all dogs after MPSS administration, and its severity was similar in both groups. Median total stomach score was 6 for misoprostol-treated dogs and 5.5 for dogs given the gelatin capsule. Difference in gastric acidity, frequency of food retention, and incidence of occult blood in gastric fluid and feces was not apparent between the 2 groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Administration of misoprostol (4 to 6 μg/kg, PO, q 8 h) does not prevent gastric hemorrhage caused by high doses of MPSS. Alternative prophylactic treatment should be considered. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:982–985)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Seventy dogs were included in a randomized, controlled, multicenter trial to test the efficacy of carprofen (2.2 mg/kg of body weight, PO, q 12 h) for relief of clinical signs associated with osteoarthritis. Thirty-six dogs received carprofen, and 34 received a placebo. Response of the dogs was evaluated by comparing results of force plate examination and a graded lameness examination performed before and immediately after 2 weeks of treatment, and by obtaining a subjective assessment of the dog's posttreatment condition from owners and participating veterinarians. A physical examination, CBC, serum biochemical analyses, urinalysis, and fecal occult blood test were performed before and after treatment to monitor safety. For force plate evaluation, the odds ratio was 3.3, meaning that a dog treated with carprofen was 3.3 times more likely to have a positive response than was a dog treated with the placebo. For evaluation by a veterinarian, the odds ratio was 3.5, and for owner evaluation, the odds ratio was 4.2. Institution where dogs were treated did not have a significant effect on results. A variety of reactions that may have been related to the medication (placebo or carprofen) were recorded; however, none were considered serious. Serum alanine aminotransferase activity was high in 3 dogs (2 that received placebo and 1 that received carprofen) at the conclusion of treatment; none of the 3 dogs were clinically ill. Ten dogs © that received placebo and 5 that received carprofen) had negative pretreatment and positive posttreatment fecal occult blood test results.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Flunixin meglumine has been reported to induce gastrointestinal lesions in dogs when administered at therapeutic dosages. We administered flunixin meglumine to dogs daily for 10 days to assess the effect of this drug on the gastrointestinal tract. We also evaluated the possibility of corticosteroid potentiation of gastrointestinal toxicosis by concurrent administration of prednisone to 1 group of dogs. Dogs were monitored for gastrointestinal toxicosis by means of serial endoscopic evaluation, measurement of fecal occult blood, pcv, and total solid concentration, and by physical examination. There were 3 treatment groups of 5 dogs each. Group-1 dogs were given 2.2 mg of flunixin meglumine/kg daily, in 2 divided doses im; group-2 dogs were given 4.4 mg of flunixin meglumine/kg daily, in 2 divided doses im; and group-3 dogs were given 2.2 mg of flunixin meglumine/kg daily, in 2 divided doses im plus 1.1 mg of prednisone/kg/d orally, in 2 divided doses. A fourth group of 5 dogs served as a control group.

Endoscopically visible gastric mucosal lesions developed in all treated dogs within 4 days of initiating treatment. Lesions first developed in the gastric pylorus and antrum and lesions at these sites were more severe than those observed elsewhere. Dogs treated with flunixin meglumine plus prednisone developed the earliest and most severe lesions; lesion scores in group-2 dogs were higher than those in group-1 dogs. All dogs treated had occult blood in their feces by day 5 and its presence appeared to correlate more closely with endoscopic findings than did physical examination findings or changes in values for pcv or total solids.

Deep ulcers were observed in the pylorus of most treated dogs examined at necropsy on day 10. Shallow ulcers and erosions were in the small intestine of group-2 and -3 dogs. Capillary microthrombi, associated with lesions of coagulative necrosis of superficial epithelium, were found in the colonic and small intestinal mucosa of several dogs in groups 2 and 3, and were suggestive of vascular injury.

From results of this study, it was concluded that flunixin meglumine, administered at therapeutic doses, induced early gastric mucosal injury in dogs and that concurrent administration of prednisone may have exacerbated the gastrointestinal injury induced by flunixin alone. Endoscopic evaluation and measurement of fecal occult blood appeared to be more sensitive than other methods evaluated for detection of gastrointestinal injury.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Bone scintigraphy was performed as part of an initial diagnostic evaluation of 70 dogs admitted with primary bone tumors during a 2-year period. Tumors involved major long bones of the appendicular skeleton and included 62 osteosarcomas, 6 fibrosarcomas, and 2 chondrosarcomas. All dogs were free of radiographically detectable pulmonary metastases.

Bone scintigraphy was not of value in distinguishing among various types of primary tumors. One dog with an ulnar chondrosarcoma had a scintigraphically detectable occult osseous metastasis or synchronous primary tumor, and 1 dog with osteosarcoma had a scintigraphically detectable lymph node metastasis. Pulmonary metastases were not detected scintigraphically. Of the 70 dogs, 44.3% had areas of increased isotope uptake associated with nonneoplastic disease processes.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To determine whether healthy dogs given high doses of methylprednisolone sodium succinate (MPSS) develop gastrointestinal tract ulcers and hemorrhage.

Animals

19 healthy male hound-type dogs.

Procedure

Dogs were assigned randomly to intravenously receive high doses of MPSS (30 mg/kg of body weight, initially, then 15 mg/kg 2 and 6 hours later, and, subsequently, every 6 hours for a total of 48 hours; n = 10) or an equal volume of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (9). Gastroduodenoscopy was performed before and after treatment. Endoscopic evidence of gross hemorrhage in the cardia, fundus, antrum, and duodenum of each dog was graded from none (0) to severe (3), and a total stomach score was calculated as the sum of the regional gastric scores. Number of ulcers were recorded. The pH of gastric fluid and evidence of occult gastric and fecal blood were measured. Food retention was recorded.

Results

Gastric hemorrhage was evident in all dogs after MPSS administration and was severe in 9 of 10 dogs but not visible in any dog after saline treatment. Occult gastric blood was detected more commonly (9/10 vs 2/9), median gastric acidity was greater (pH 1 vs pH 3), and food was retained more commonly (7/10 vs 1/9) in the stomach of MPSS-treated dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

High doses of MPSS cause gastric hemorrhage in dogs. All dogs treated with high doses of MPSS should be treated with mucosal protectants or antacids to prevent gastric hemorrhage. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:977–981)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary:

The relative toxicity of phenylbutazone, flunixin meglumine, and ketoprofen was studied in healthy adult horses. Sixteen horses were randomly assigned to receive 10 ml of physiologic saline solution, or ketoprofen (2.2 mg/kg of body weight), flunixin meglumine (1.1 mg/kg), or phenylbutazone (4.4 mg/kg) IV, every 8 hours, for 12 days. Results of CBC, serum biochemical analyses, and fecal occult blood tests were monitored. On day 13, all horses were euthanatized and complete necropsy examinations were performed.

Mean CBC values remained within normal limits for all groups. Phenylbutazone-treated horses had a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in serum total protein and albumin concentrations. Mean values of all other serum biochemical assays were not different from those of the saline-treated group. Results of all fecal occult blood tests were negative. At necropsy, the glandular portion of the stomach was the area of the gastrointestinal tract most severely affected by phenylbutazone, flunixin meglumine, and ketoprofen. In the phenylbutazone-treated group, but not in the other groups, edema of the small intestine and erosions and ulcers of the large colon were observed. None of the horses treated with saline solution had lesions in the glandular portion of the stomach or in the intestine. Four horses (1/5 and 3/3 in the flunixin- and phenylbutazone-treated groups, respectively) developed renal crest necrosis. Horses in the saline- and ketoprofen-treated groups did not develop renal lesions. Under the conditions of this study and with total daily doses that exceeded the manufacturers' recommended doses, the toxic potential of the 3 nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs was greatest for phenylbutazone, less for flunixin meglumine, and least for ketoprofen in clinically normal adult horses.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

The inclusion of vertebral heart score (VHS) and, more recently, the inclusion of the vertebral left atrial size (VLAS) in radiographic evaluation have become important screening tools for identifying dogs with occult cardiac disease. Several recent papers have shown there are interbreed variations in the VHS reference range. Our hypothesis is that the Miniature Schnauzer would also have a higher reference range for its VHS.

ANIMALS

The electronic medical records of IDEXX Telemedicine Consultants were searched for Miniature Schnauzers undergoing thoracic radiographs between March 1, 2022, and February 28, 2023.

METHODS

Dogs were included if they had 3 view thoracic radiographs performed and no evidence of cardiopulmonary disease was detected. Dogs with incomplete radiographic studies or cardiac or extracardiac disease were excluded. The VHS and VLAS measurements were performed by 2 board-certified cardiologists independent of one another.

RESULTS

A total of 1,000 radiographs were obtained of which 272 were included for the study. The overall range for the VHS in this cohort was 9.68 to 12.07 with a median of 10.9. For VLAS measurements, a range of 1.71 to 2.4 was documented with a median of 2.0.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The VHS for Miniature Schnauzers without cardiac disease was confirmed to be higher than the canine reference range.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research