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Ejection fraction ESV End-systolic volume LV Left ventricle MDCT Multidetector row CT MOD Method of disks RT3DE Real-time 3-D echocardiography RTBPE Real-time biplane echocardiography SV Stroke volume Footnotes a. Brant R. Inference

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

LV Left ventricle RV Right ventricle SAP Systolic arterial blood pressure a. BC-2300 Hematology Analyzer, Mindray, Shenzhen, People's Republic of China. b. MP100 series, BIOPAC Systems Inc, Goleta, Calif. c. Acqknowledge, version 3

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

. Echocardiography 2004 ; 21 : 669 – 672 . 10.1111/j.0742-2822.2004.04052.x 14. Gaibazzi N Petrucci N Ziacchi V . Left ventricle myocardial performance index derived either by conventional method or mitral annulus tissue-Doppler: a comparison study in

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

-apex ECG tracing was superimposed for timing. An M-mode echocardiogram was obtained from a short-axis view of the left ventricle, 14 and 5 nonconsecutive cardiac cycles (5 frames) separated by at least 5 to 10 heartbeats were obtained and digitally stored

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To determine the incidence of acute and subacute myocardial infarction on postmortem examination, identify associated diseases, and evaluate clinical or diagnostic indicators of myocardial infarction in dogs and cats.

Design

Retrospective study.

Animals

32 dogs and 5 cats.

Procedure

Records from the necropsy service from December 1985 through August 1994 were searched for dogs and cats in which acute or subacute myocardial infarction was diagnosed on postmortem examination. Clinical records were reviewed for signalment, initial owner complaint, medical history, results of physical examination, electrocardiography, radiography, echocardiography, CBC, serum chemistry analysis, urinalysis, and coagulation profile as well as clinical course, outcome, necropsy findings, and results of histologic evaluation.

Results

Initial owner complaints and physical examination findings were consistent with associated diseases. Electrocardiographic abnormalities in dogs included ventricular tachycardia (16%), atrial fibrillation (9%), and premature ventricular contractions (6.5%). Premature ventricular contractions were noticed in 2 cats. Echocardiography revealed dilated, poorly contractile hearts (n = 3) and thickened mitral valves (2) in dogs, and ventricular hypertrophy (3) in cats. Ninety-seven percent of dogs had infarction of the left ventricle as well as other other portions of the heart. Infarctions in cats were found in all parts of the myocardium including the right ventricle (n = 3), left ventricle (3), and interventricular septum (1).

Clinical Implications

Myocardial infarction is rare in dogs and cats. It is associated with a number of common diseases and may contribute to morbidity and mortality in those dogs and cats that are critically ill. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;213:1444-1448)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

We studied, by means of echocardiography in vivo, the cardiac consequences of the double-muscled character selection in beef cattle. Morphologic and functional echocardiographic variables were regularly estimated in 17 Friesian and 8 Belgian White and Blue calves during their growth. A total of 50 and 44 sets of data were collected in each group, respectively. Recordings were obtained, using 2-dimensional and M-mode echocardiography, and included measurements in long- and short-axis views of the heart.

Most of the diastolic measurements of the left ventricle were not significantly different between breeds when normalized for body weight. To the contrary, systolic measurements of left ventricular wall thickness and dimensions were significantly (P ≤ 0.001) lower and greater, respectively, in Belgian White and Blue calves than in Friesian calves. This was interpreted as a result of significantly (P ≤ 0.001) lower left ventricular systolic functional indices in Belgian White and Blue than in Friesian calves.

Echocardiographic evidence that the double-muscled selection in cattle induces alteration in morphologic variables of left ventricle was not found. However, results indicate that indices of left ventricular systolic function are lower in double-muscled calves than in calves with standard conformation.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Right atrial, pulmonary artery, pulmonary capillary, pulmonary artery wedge, and systemic blood pressures of strenuously exercising horses increase markedly. As a consequence, myocardial metabolic O2 demand in exercising horses must be high. Experiments were, therefore, carried out on 9 healthy, exercise-conditioned horses (2.5 to 8 years old; 481 ± 16 kg) to ascertain the regional distribution of myocardial blood supply in the atria and ventricles at rest and during exercise. Blood flow was measured, using 15-μm-diameter radionuclide-labeled microspheres that were injected into the left ventricle while reference blood samples were being withdrawn at a constant rate from the thoracic aorta. Myocardial blood flow was determined at rest and during 2 exercise bouts performed on a high-speed treadmill at 8 and 13 m/s (0% grade). The sequence of exercise bouts was randomized among horses, and a 60-minute rest period was permitted between exercise bouts. There was considerable heterogeneity in the distribution of myocardial perfusion in the atria and the ventricles at rest; the right atrial myocardium received significantly (P < 0.05) less perfusion than did the left atrium, and these values were significantly (P < 0.05) less than those for the respective ventricular myocardium. The right ventricular myocardial blood flow also was significantly less than that in the left ventricle. With exercise, myocardial blood flow in all regions increased progressively with increasing work intensity and marked coronary vasodilation was observed in all cardiac regions. During exercise at 8 or 13 m/s, right and left atrial myocardial blood flows (per unit weight basis) were not different from each other. Although at treadmill speed of 8 m/s, left ventricular myocardial blood flow exceeded that in the right ventricle, this was not the case at 13 m/s, when perfusion values (per unit weight basis) became similar. These data suggested that, in exercising horses, myocardial metabolic O2 requirements increase markedly in all regions. However, the right atrial and right ventricular myocardial blood flows increased out of proportion to those in the left atrium and left ventricle, respectively.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

the left ventricular outflow tract position at a depth of 24 cm (A) and the left ventricular position at a depth of 22 cm (B), respectively. RV = Right ventricle. LV = Left ventricle.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate global genome expression patterns of left ventricular tissues from dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM).

Sample Population—Tissues obtained from the left ventricle of 2 Doberman Pinschers with end-stage DCM and 5 healthy control dogs.

Procedure—Transcriptional activities of 23,851 canine DNA sequences were determined by use of an oligonucleotide microarray. Genome expression patterns of DCM tissue were evaluated by measuring the relative amount of complementary RNA hybridization to the microarray probes and comparing it with gene expression for tissues from 5 healthy control dogs.

Results—478 transcripts were differentially expressed (≥ 2.5-fold change). In DCM tissue, expression of 173 transcripts was upregulated and expression of 305 transcripts was downregulated, compared with expression for control tissues. Of the 478 transcripts, 167 genes could be specifically identified. These genes were grouped into 1 of 8 categories on the basis of their primary physiologic function. Grouping revealed that pathways involving cellular energy production, signaling and communication, and cell structure were generally downregulated, whereas pathways involving cellular defense and stress responses were upregulated. Many previously unreported genes that may contribute to the pathophysiologic aspects of heart disease were identified.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Evaluation of global expression patterns provides a molecular portrait of heart failure, yields insights into the pathophysiologic aspects of DCM, and identifies intriguing genes and pathways for further study. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1140–1155)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Case Description—A 6-year-old spayed female domestic ferret was evaluated because of lethargy, alopecia, pruritus, and an abdominal mass.

Clinical Findings—On initial examination, nonregenerative anemia, mild azotemia, and a large left adrenal gland mass were identified. However, deterioration of the ferret's general condition prevented excision of the mass, and dyspnea, weakness, hypertension, and severe hypokalemia developed. Plasma aldosterone concentration was > 3,329 pmol/L, confirming a provisional diagnosis of hyperaldosteronism. High concentrations of sex hormones were also observed, but baseline cortisol concentration was within reference limits.

Treatment and Outcome—Medical treatment included oral administration of spironolactone, potassium gluconate, leuprolide acetate, amlodipine, and benazepril. Inhalation of albuterol proved effective in reducing the dyspnea. In the following weeks, serum potassium concentration returned to within reference limits and hypertension decreased, but dyspnea persisted. Two months after initial examination, the ferret became anorectic and was euthanized. Histologic examination revealed a large left adrenal gland adenoma, progressive chronic nephropathy, severe pulmonary edema, and focal fibrosis in the left ventricle. Immunohistochemical staining of the adrenal gland mass revealed aldosterone within neoplastic adrenocortical cells.

Clinical Relevance—Findings suggested that primary hyperaldosteronism should be considered as a possible cause in ferrets with hypokalemia, hypertension, and an adrenal gland mass. Early detection of aldosterone-secreting masses might allow for removal of the tumor before irreversible complications occur.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association