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during physical examination of the hoof for lameness, and the hooves appeared intact during macroscopic examination of the hoof wall. Horses were classified into 5 groups on the basis of age: foals (age, 1 to 9 months; n = 9), yearlings (5), 2 year olds

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

biopsy specimens have been collected through the hoof wall in standing animals. 8–10 In cattle, tissues have been harvested from the sole-heel junction. 9,10 Single laminar biopsy specimens have been collected in standing horses by use of a technique

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

protective layer for the structures immediately subjacent to it, including the DP, solar corium, and digital cushion. In the past, it was considered that a horse should bear its weight on the external hoof wall. Traditional and modern farriery practices use

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

shoeing interval were a decrease of 3.3° in hoof angle of the forefeet and a decrease of 3.2° in the hoof angle of the hind feet. Length of the dorsal hoof wall increased by 1.4 cm and 1.5 cm, respectively. 4 On mere geometric analysis, these changes in

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

. HW = Hoof wall. LPS infusions —Infusion with LPS following treatment with saline solution caused a significant increase in heart rate, compared with time 0 (start of LPS infusion) values, between 45 and 120 minutes, reaching a maximum of 58

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate changes in strain patterns in normal equine hooves following 4-point trimming, using photoelastic stress analysis.

Sample Population—15 equine front limbs with normal hoof configuration.

Procedure—Limbs were disarticulated at the carpometacarpal joint. Weight-bearing surfaces of each hoof were trimmed level to ensure 100% ground contact. Hoof walls were coated with a custom-made strain-sensitive plastic, and limbs were loaded to a third of body weight. Using a polariscope, strain distribution, magnitudes, and directions were evaluated in level hooves as well as before and after standardized 4-point trimming. Repeated-measures ANOVA was used to compare strain magnitudes and directions before and after trimming.

Results—In leveled specimens, strain fields were symmetrically distributed above the heels and at quarter-toe junctions along a line between the middle and distal thirds of the hoof wall. After 4-point trimming, strain epicenters localized above the contact points, whereas strain magnitudes significantly increased by approximately 50%. Decreasing contact area by 50% resulted in an additional significant increase (32%) in strain magnitude. Trimming did not have a significant effect on strain orientations.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—This study documents that 4-point trimming results in strain concentration above the hoof contact points and that strain magnitude is dependent on contact area. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:467–473)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effect of prolonged water exposure on tissue mass and solutes of outer and inner layers of the stratum medium, sole, frog, and the stratum medium (SMZA) zona alba layer of horses' hooves.

Specimen Population—10 hooves from 10 horses without foot abnormalities.

Procedure—Hoof wall tissue specimens were obtained and immersed for 10 days in distilled deionized water. Serial changes in mass were recorded during the immersion period. Subsequently, osmolarity and Na+, K+, Cl, and protein concentrations of the immersion solution were quantified.

Results—Fully cornified outer hoof wall, sole, and frog epidermal structures increased in mass, whereas the SMZA lost mass when immersed in water. All hoof structures had a variable loss of crystalloids during immersion, but none of the specimens lost proteins. The frog epidermis was distinct in that total solute lost during immersion could not be ascribed to Na+, K+, and Cl.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Data support a 2-compartment model for the fully cornified outer stratum medium, frog, and sole that permits the exchange of crystalloids, but not proteins, across the cell membrane and infers that topical agents containing proteins cannot benefit the hoof. The unique osmotic behavior of the SMZA relative to other hoof structures suggests the hypothesis that it is composed of transitional epithelial cells. The solutes lost from frog epithelium are interpreted to reflect its unique lipid composition. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1140–1144)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

The hypothesis that equine laminitis is caused by thrombosis of vessels in the laminar corium (dermis) was investigated. Hemostatic alterations were evaluated by determining platelet count, platelet survival, platelet adhesiveness to vascular subendothelium, activated clotting time, and whole blood recalcification time. Thrombosis of vessels in the hoof wall was evaluated by scintigraphic studies of the hoof wall after administration of indium-111 (111In)-labeled platelets, contrast arteriography, and histologic examination. Platelet count remained constant before and at the onset of lameness; however, survival of 111In-labeled platelets was shortened. Scintigraphy of affected feet revealed accumulation of 111In-labeled platelets distal to the coronary band. Arteriography of disarticulated saline-perfused feet revealed marked reduction in blood supply to affected hooves. Histologic examination of the laminar dermis disclosed variable numbers of microthrombi in dermal veins of affected feet from 3 of 4 ponies with laminitis. Whole blood recalcification time was shortened at 8 hours after administration of carbohydrate and was prolonged at the onset of laminitis. Activated clotting time was prolonged at 32 hours after carbohydrate administration and at the onset of lameness. Plasma endotoxin-like activity was detected in 1 of 4 affected ponies. These data confirm that microvascular thrombosis existed at the onset of lameness in ponies with carbohydrate-induced laminitis and indicate that systemic coagulopathy may have preceded development of thrombosis.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research
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Abstract

Objectives—To determine whether there is a change in the expression of cytokeratins in the epidermal cells of the non-weight-bearing parts of the limb in horses with acute laminitis and thus determine whether the morphologic changes that develop in the periople and chestnut (torus carpeus) of horses early in acute laminitis are caused by inhibition of keratinocyte differentiation.

Animals—8 horses with acute laminitis.

Procedure—Tissue specimens were obtained from the chestnuts of all 8 horses and from the stratum externum of the hoof wall of 3 horses. Tissue specimens were obtained within 48 hours of the first clinical signs of laminitis. The cytokeratins were characterized by 1- and 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and the tissue distribution of the cytokeratins was studied by immunohistochemical staining.

Results—The biochemical findings indicated that the epidermal cells of tissues from horses affected by laminitis contained the same set of cytokeratins as corresponding tissues from clinically normal horses. Immunohistochemistry on sections from specimens of horses with laminitis versus clinically normal horses indicated a difference in the expression of cytokeratin in the basal cells in the matrix of the stratum externum of the hoof wall and in the matrix of the chestnut of horses with laminitis in which the most severe morphologic changes were observed.

Conclusions—Inhibition of keratinocyte differentiation, as observed by immunohistochemical changes, in cells in parts of the chestnut and periople may indirectly indicate that the observed epidermal changes in horses with laminitis are primary and are unaffected by weight-bearing. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:425–432)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate patterns of digital cushion (DC) displacement that occur in response to vertical loading of the distal portion of the forelimb in horses.

Sample Population—Forelimbs from 10 horses with normal feet.

Procedure—Patterns of DC displacement induced by in vitro vertical limb loading were determined. Loadinduced displacement of the DC was defined as the magnitude and direction of displacement of 6 radiodense, percutaneously implanted markers in specific regions of the DC. The effects of solar support and nonsupport on displacement of the DC were compared.

Results—Regional displacement of the DC occurred principally along distal and palmar vectors in response to vertical loading. Medial or lateral abaxial displacements were variable and appeared to be dependent on response of the limb to the applied load. Displacement of the DC was not affected by the degree of solar support.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Data indicated that the biomechanical function of the DC is to act as a restraint to the displacement of the second phalanx or as a passive structure that allows flexibility of the caudal two thirds of the foot. Results did not indicate that the DC provides a force that induces displacement of or an active restraint against outward displacement of the hoof wall capsule. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:623–629)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research