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. Many gastrointestinal diseases can affect snakes. Most common pathological conditions are the consequence of husbandry-related problems (temperature too high or too low, unsuitable humidity, or inappropriate cage substrate); stress (loud noises or a

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

ferrets . Compend Contin Educ Pract Vet 1994 ; 16 : 617 – 622 . 12. Blankenship-Paris TL Chang J Bagnell CR . Enteric coccidiosis in a ferret . Lab Anim Sci 1993 ; 43 : 361 – 363 . 13. Hillver EV . Gastrointestinal diseases of

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

.08–3.10) * .024 * 1.74 (1.04–2.92) * .036 * Gastrointestinal disease 5.08 (2.45–10.54) * < .001 * 4.76 (2.30–9.85) * < .001 * Fasted 1.82 (1.08–3.07) * .024 * 1.75 (1.05–2.92) * .032 * NSAID use 3.15 (0.89–11.2) .076 4

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

gastrointestinal disease, the need to withhold food from an affected patient before collecting a blood sample to test can interfere with a streamlined diagnostic workup. Additionally, among laboratories that provide these tests for dogs, there are no standardized

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

concluded that the prokinetic effects of erythromycin in healthy horses and horses with gastrointestinal disease were not the same. 25 A different study 15 revealed that distension and subsequent decompression of a segment of equine jejunum resulted in

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

leak in gastrointestinal disease and multiorgan failure . J Epithel Biol Pharmacol 2012 ; 5 : 13 – 18 . 10.2174/1875044301205010013 6. Pastor Rojo O López San Roman A Albéniz Arbizu E , et al. Serum lipopolysaccharide-binding protein in

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

. Gastrointestinal anatomy and physiology of select exotic companion mammals . Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract . 2014 ; 17 ( 2 ): 165 – 178 . doi: 10.1016/j.cvex.2014.01.010 17. Oglesbee BL , Lord B . Gastrointestinal diseases of rabbits . In: Ferrets

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objectives

To determine prevalence of gastric spiral organisms (GSO) in dogs and cats that were clinically normal or had primary gastrointestinal disease and to compare histologic lesions of the stomach in dogs and cats with and without GSO.

Animals

21 dogs and 10 cats that were clinically normal and 56 dogs and 33 cats with gastrointestinal disease.

Design

Case-control study.

Results

Unevenness of the gastric mucosal surface was detected, using endoscopic techniques in 20 and 25% of clinically normal and abnormal dogs, respectively. On histologic examination, GSO were located on the mucosal surface within or beneath the mucus, in gastric pits, and within glandular lumina in 86 and 90% of clinically normal dogs and cats, respectively, and in 61 and 64% of clinically abnormal dogs and cats, respectively. Prevalence of GSO infection in dogs and cats that were clinically abnormal was not higher than in those that were clinically normal. Infection was detected in stomachs of > 60% of dogs and cats 1 year old or less. Helicobacter pylori was not isolated from any specimen; however, specimens in which GSO were found had positive results on a urease test.

Clinical Implications

Prevalence of GSO infection was high in clinically normal and abnormal dogs and cats, some of which were young. This should be considered during assessment of clinically normal animals with GSO as they can be a potential reservoir for infection in human beings. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998; 212:529-533)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate whether changes in gastric myoelectrical activity in healthy, awake dogs can be detected via multichannel electrogastrography (EGG).

Animals—6 healthy hound-breed dogs.

Procedures—For each dog, 8-channel EGG was performed after food had been withheld for 12 hours and at 30 minutes after subsequent feeding; 60 minutes after feeding, atropine (0.04 mg/kg) was administered IM to induce ileus, and 30 minutes later, EGG was again performed. Mean cycles per minute (cpm) values of the dominant frequency (a measure of the rhythmicity of gastric electrical activity) and mean power ratios (ie, power measured after treatment divided by the power measured when food was withheld) were calculated. Motility of the gastric antrum was assessed via B-mode ultrasonography during the same phases; contractions determined ultrasonographically were correlated with EGG power for each channel in each phase.

Results—The criterion for stability (SD of the dominant frequency < 15% of the cpm value in at least 3 of the 8 EGG channels) was met in 4 of the 6 dogs (only in long-distance channels). The mean power ratios were significantly higher in the postprandial phase than in the ileus phase. Compared with the postprandial phase, significantly fewer contractions per minute were evident ultrasonographically in the ileus and food-withholding phases. There was a significant and good correlation between EGG power and ultrasonographic findings in all 8 channels.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Electrogastrography may be useful in assessing gastric myoelectrical activities in awake dogs with naturally occurring gastrointestinal disease, including gastric dilatation-volvulus.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Xylazine (0.05 mg/kg of body weight diluted to a 5-ml volume, using 0.9% NaCl) or 5 ml of 0.9% NaCl was administered epidurally into the first caudal intervertebral space (Co1-Co2) in 8 cows (mean ± sd body weight, 583 ± 150 kg). Cows were observed for responses to deep needle pricking of the caudal dermatomes (S3 to Co), sedation, and ataxia. Heart rate, respiratory rate, body temperature, rate of ruminal contractions, coccygeal arterial blood pressure, pHa, blood gas tension (Pa o 2 , Pa co 2 ), base excess, total solids concentration, and pcv were determined before and after xylazine administration. Epidurally administered xylazine induced sedation and selective (S3 to Co) analgesia for at least 2 hours. Mild ataxia of hind limbs was observed in 6 cows, but all cows remained standing. Heart rate, respiratory rate, rate of ruminal contractions, arterial blood pressure, Pa o 2 , pcv, and total solids concentration were significantly (P < 0.05) decreased, and Pa co 2 , base excess, and bicarbonate concentration were significantly (P < 0.05) increased after xylazine administration. Epidurally administered 0.9% NaCl did not alter sensory perception to needle pricking and did not affect any of the physiologic variables determined. Although epidural administration of xylazine induced analgesia and sedation in healthy cows, it should be avoided for epidural analgesia in cattle with heart disease, lung disease, and/or gastrointestinal disease because of its potent cardiopulmonary and ruminal depressant effects.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research