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Epidemiology of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococci Definitions of methicillin and multidrug resistance The antibacterial drug methicillin was first introduced in 1959, and at the time it was hoped that it would be the end of

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

successive years, with the highest rate in mid-October that subsides each spring. The purpose of the information reported here is to describe the current state of knowledge about control and epidemiology of PRRS. Information on aspects related to molecular

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Rabies, caused by a Lyssavirus, is a zoonotic disease with variable epidemiology throughout the United States, which poses unique control and management challenges for veterinarians. In West Virginia, approximately 90% of confirmed animal cases of

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

epidemiology of plague transmission by serving as a mechanical vector for plague-infected fleas. 5,7,9–11 Dogs have been described as resistant to plague infection, and clinical illness in dogs is believed to be less common than clinical illness in cats. 12

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

fainei sp. nov., isolated from pigs in Australia . Int J Syst Bacteriol . 1998 ; 48 Pt 3 : 851 – 858 . 7. Sykes JE , Reagan KL , Nally JE , et al . Role of diagnostics in epidemiology, management, surveillance, and control of

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Data from 10,769 dogs with rupture of the cranial cruciate ligament (ccl) were compared with data from a control population of 591,548 dogs to determine whether age, breed, gender, or body weight was associated with prevalence of ccl rupture. Prevalence of ccl rupture increased as dogs became older, with peak prevalence in dogs 7 to 10 years old. Among breeds represented by > 1,000 individuals, Rottweilers, Newfoundlands, and Staffordshire Terriers had the highest prevalence of ccl rupture, whereas Dachshunds, Basset Hounds, and Old English Sheepdogs had the lowest. Neutered dogs, whether male or female, had a higher prevalence of ccl rupture than did sexually intact dogs. The dog's age at the time of ovariohysterectomy was not associated with prevalence of ccl rupture. Dogs weighing > 22 kg had a higher prevalence of ccl rupture, compared with dogs weighing < 22 kg, and tended to rupture their ccl at a younger age.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To examine the pattern of pseudorabies virus (PRV) infection in Pennsylvania and identify the area factors associated with herd quarantine status.

Sample Population

123 PRV-quarantined commercial swine herds identified between 1986 and 1993 were selected as cases, and 162 uninfected herds were selected as controls.

Procedure

Herd location, demographics, and temporal vaccination and quarantine data for a case-control study were obtained from producer questionnaires and state records, using a database of swine herds from 2 Pennsylvania counties. Any herd that was on quarantine as of Jan 1, 1991, or quarantined subsequent to this date, was defined as a case. A herd was defined as a control if it had never been quarantined for PRV. Controls were group matched to cases by year. Study herds were centered in a circle, or buffer zone, with a 1.61-km (1-mile), 3.22-km (2-mile), or 6.44-km (4-mile) radius, and densities of operation types, quarantined herds, nonquarantined herds, and vaccinated herds in the buffer zone were compared. The analytical outcome was the probability of a herd being quarantined, conditional on the buffer zone density of herds quarantined, herds not quarantined, and herds in which a PRV vaccine was used. These density variables were categorized into high, medium, and low, or just high and low categories. Confounding by year was assessed in the analysis. Analysis was performed, using unconditional logistic regression.

Results

Decreased density of PRV-quarantined herds in the study region was associated with reduced risk of a herd becoming quarantined, whereas increased density of nonquarantined, presumably uninfected herds was associated with decreased probability of a herd becoming quarantined. Decreased density of vaccinated herds was associated with increased probability of a herd becoming quarantined. In addition, being a farrow-to-finish study herd was associated with increased probability of becoming quarantined, compared with being a feeder pig producer study herd.

Conclusions

Associations with quarantine status and area densities of vaccinated, nonquarantined, and quarantined herds indicate the importance of area spread in PRV control. These effects are seen most strongly at a 3.22-km (2-mile) radius, but also are seen at a 6.44-km (4-mile) radius. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:1563–1568)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine proportions of cats in which feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) was diagnosed on an annual, monthly, and regional basis and identify unique characteristics of cats with FIP.

Design—Case-control study.

Sample Population—Records of all feline accessions to veterinary medical teaching hospitals (VMTH) recorded in the Veterinary Medical Data Base between January 1986 and December 1995 and of all feline accessions for necropsy or histologic examination at 4 veterinary diagnostic laboratories.

Procedure—Proportions of total and new feline accessions for which a diagnosis of FIP was recorded were calculated. To identify characteristics of cats with FIP, cats with FIP were compared with the next cat examined at the same institution (control cats).

Results—Approximately 1 of every 200 new feline and 1 of every 300 total feline accessions at VMTH in North America and approximately 1 of every 100 accessions at the diagnostic laboratories represented cats with FIP. Cats with FIP were significantly more likely to be young, purebred, and sexually intact males and significantly less likely to be spayed females and discharged alive than were control cats. The proportion of new accessions for which a diagnosis of FIP was recorded did not vary significantly among years, months, or regions of the country.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that FIP continues to be a clinically important disease in North America and that sexually intact male cats may be at increased risk, and spayed females at reduced risk, for FIP. The high prevalence of FIP and lack of effective treatment emphasizes the importance of preventive programs, especially in catteries. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:1111–1115)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association