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acid in articular cartilage. 31 In human medicine, intra-articular inflammation is positively correlated with and predictive of the severity of chondropathy in arthritic joints, 25 and the extent of joint effusion and synovitis detected by MRI is

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

both middle carpal joints. Before and after joint manipulation, horses were in good health, without palpable effusions or radiographic abnormalities, and free of lameness. Prior to the onset of the study, horses underwent an orthopedic assessment by a

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

lameness scores assigned. The impacted stifle was also assessed for the presence of periarticular swelling or edema, synovial effusion, and other abnormalities. Postmortem assessments The short-term and long-term cohorts of horses were euthanatized

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

8 years (mean ± SD age, 5.1 ± 1.8 years) and included 5 castrated male and 5 spayed female dogs. Stifle joint osteoarthritis was confirmed for each dog by a board-certified veterinary surgeon (JLC) on the basis of the detection of joint effusion

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

. During the 18-month exercise period, none of the horses had obvious lameness or prolonged periods of carpal joint effusion; joint effusion in both groups was mild and similar between the groups. 20 , a Sample collection and processing —Horses were

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

. Subsequent weekly samples were harvested by alternating between left and right joints. Horses were observed daily and evaluated every 2 days throughout the study for any signs of heat, pain, effusion, or abnormal gait. Blood and synovial fluid samples were

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

any dogs during the study. A consistent, severe synovitis, as indicated by an increase in all measures of lameness and by the development of a severe effusion of the injected stifle joint, was induced in all but 1 dog in both phases of the study

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

inflammation and, subsequently, to progressive changes of osteoarthritis. 2,3 Intra-articular administration of corticosteroids, including TA, rapidly resolves joint effusion, synovitis, and pain associated with osteoarthritis and remains the mainstay of

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

CrCL rupture in the 13 dogs was diagnosed on the basis of clinical findings of unilateral hind limb lameness, palpable cranial drawer movement (except in 1 dog, which had effusion of the stifle joint, radiographic signs of osteoarthritis, and

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

line on a hard surface prior to euthanasia and were excluded from the study if they were lame or had synovial effusion of either metacarpophalangeal joint. The articular surface and synovial membrane were inspected postmortem for macroscopic evidence of

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research