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Summary:

In this study, we found that the rate at which radiographically diagnosed simultaneous pleural and peritoneal effusions (double effusions [de]) developed was highest in dogs and cats with infectious causes of pleuritis and/or peritonitis and in those with pancreatitis. However, de were observed more frequently in dogs and cats with neoplastic and cardiovascular diseases. Nonneoplastic liver disease was also documented as a cause of de in the population of this study. Frequency of de was increased in males and in animals > 6 years old. The finding of simultaneous pleural and peritoneal effusions can be considered an indicator of disease severity, and warrants a poor to grave prognosis.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To assess use of thoracoscopy to determine causes of pleural effusion in dogs and cats.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—15 dogs and 3 cats with pleural effusion.

Procedure—Medical records were reviewed from 1998 to 2001 for dogs and cats that had exploratory thoracoscopy, biopsy, and histologic analysis to determine the etiology of pleural effusion. Intraoperative and postoperative complications were recorded. Surgical biopsy specimens were evaluated for quantity and quality for providing a histologic diagnosis.

Results—Biopsy specimens were deemed adequate in quantity and quality to render a histologic diagnosis in all animals. Etiology of the effusion was neoplasia in 8 animals and non-neoplastic pleuritis in 10 animals. Median survival time of animals with neoplasia was 15 days, whereas those with inflammatory diseases had median survival time of > 785 days. Postoperative pneumothorax was encountered in 2 animals subsequent to pulmonary biopsy. No other major complications were recorded.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Thoracoscopy is a diagnostic option that provides excellent viewing of intrathoracic structures and adequate biopsy specimens with minimal complications. This technique provides a less invasive alternative to thoracotomy for evaluating the etiology of pleural effusion. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:990–994)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Pleural effusion was induced in 12 dogs by ligation of the cranial vena cava. Pleurodesis was attempted by injecting a solution of tetracycline hydrochloride into the pleural space of 8 dogs (4 dogs, 25 mg/kg of body weight; 4 dogs, 50 mg/kg) via bilateral thoracostomy tubes. In both groups, tetracycline was diluted in 40 ml of normal saline solution and 10 ml of 1% lidocaine before injection. Half of the solution (25 ml) was instilled in each hemithorax. Four control dogs were treated in the same manner with a solution of normal saline and lidocaine. Daily pleural fluid production was measured after the attempted pleurodesis. Thirty days after administration of the solution, each dog was euthanatized and necropsied. Surface area of pleural adhesions was measured. Tissues from regions of pleural adhesions and areas of parietal and visceral pleura not involved in adhesions were analyzed histologically.

Formation of pleural fluid stopped in all but 1 control dog within 48 hours after injection of solution. This dog effused throughout the study. The resolution of effusion was not significantly (P < 0.05) different between the tetracycline-treated dogs and the control group. Although diffuse pleural adhesions were not induced in any of tbe dogs, significantly (P < 0.0027) more surface area of lung was adhered in dogs treated with the higher dose of tetracycline.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

), intussusception (1), congestive heart failure (1), pericardial effusion (1), postoperative resection and anastomosis with systemic inflammatory response and hypoproteinemia (1), hepatic neoplasia (1), and anaphylaxis (1). Three of 22 dogs with nonseptic PE had

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

and pleural effusion, which was confirmed by the presence of a large amount of fluid in the space between the heart and pericardial sac and moderate fluid in the pleural space ( Figure 1 ) . Figure 1 A—M-mode cross-sectional view on

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Case records of 43 horses with pleural effusion associated with acute pleuropneumonia, chronic pleuropneumonia, or pleuritis secondary to a penetrating thoracic wound were reviewed to determine the predisposing factors, diagnosis, and treatment of this condition.

Acute pleuropneumonia was diagnosed in 36 horses, the majority of which were Thoroughbreds (89%). Of 22 (61%) horses that were in race training at the onset of illness, 11 (31%) had been recently transported a long distance and 4 (11%) had evidence of exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage. Physical examination findings and hematologic data were nonspecific. The most consistent abnormality was hyperfibrino-genemia. Affected horses were treated with antibiotics, thoracic drainage, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and supportive care. Twenty-two (61%) horses were discharged from the hospital, with the mean duration of hospitalization for those discharged being 23 days. Nine (25%) horses were euthanatized and 5 (14%) died. Bacterial culturing of thoracic fluid resulted in growth in 30 of the 36 (83%) horses. The finding of anaerobic bacteria in thoracic fluid was not associated with a lower survival rate (62%) than the overall survival rate (61%).

Four horses with chronic pleuropneumonia had a history of lethargy and inappetence for > 2 weeks. Actinobacillus equuli was isolated, either alone or in combination with other bacteria, from thoracic fluid of these 4 horses. Each horse was treated with broad spectrum antibiotics and made a rapid recovery.

Three horses with acute pleuritis secondary to penetrating thoracic wounds also had nonspecific clinical signs, apart from the wound and a large volume of pleural effusion. Bacteriologic isolates from these horses differed slightly from those of horses with acute pleuropneumonia.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

/dL, respectively). Repeat thoracic ultrasound and an echocardiogram showed worsening bilateral free fluid and pericardial effusion. Most concerning, the horse became increasingly uncomfortable and remained persistently tachycardic and hyperlactatmic despite

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Interleukin-1 (il-1) is a protein secreted by stimulated cells of the monocyte-macrophage line, which has a number of important biologic activities. Interleukin-1 has been implicated in the induction and augmentation of the pathologic processes involved in arthritis and articular cartilage destruction. Horses develop osteoarthritis with a frequency and degree of severity similar to human beings. To further document the similarity of the osteoarthritic process in people and horses, the synovial fluid from 5 horses with clinical osteoarthritis was tested for il-1 bioactivity. Interleukin-1 activity was found in all tested synovial fluids. Upon column chromatography, the synovial fluid-derived factor had a molecular weight consistent with that of il-1 in other mammalian species. Ion exchange chromatography of osteoarthritic synovial fluid revealed the principal peaks of bioactivity to be in the fractions with isoelectric points of 7.2, 5.4, and 4.7, which are characteristic of il-1. A considerable degree of homology between human and equine il-1 was demonstrated by the cross hybridization of a human il-1β cDNA probe with rna derived from il-1-producing equine adherent monocytes. These results indicate that equine il-1 is in all of the osteoarthritic equine joints tested and that equine il-1 has many of the characteristics of il-1 isolated from other species.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research