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Abstract

Objective—To determine whether plasma concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) are increased in cats with congestive heart failure (CHF) secondary to cardiomyopathy.

Animals—26 adult cats with CHF and cardiomyopathy and 9 healthy control cats.

Procedure—Plasma concentrations of TNF-α were measured in cats with CHF and cardiomyopathy. Tumor necrosis factor-α was measured by quantifying cytotoxic effects of TNF-α on L929 murine fibrosarcoma cells.

Results—Concentrations of TNF-α were increased (0.13 to 3.6 U/ml) in 10 of 26 cats with CHF but were undetectable in the other 16 cats with CHF and all control cats. In 20 of 26 cats with CHF, right-sided heart failure (RHF) was evident; TNF-α concentrations were increased in 9 of these 20 cats. The remaining 6 cats had left-sided heart failure (LHF); TNF-α concentrations were increased in only 1 of these cats. Age of cats with LHF (mean ± SD, 12.1 ± 6.2 years) was not significantly different from age of the cohort with RHF (10.5 ± 5.2 years). Body weight of cats with increased TNFα concentrations (5.4 ± 1.8 kg) was not significantly different from body weight of cats with CHF that did not have measurable concentrations of TNF-α (4.7 ± 1.6 kg).

Conclusionss and Clinical Relevance—Concentrations of TNF-α were increased in many cats with CHF. Cats with RHF were most likely to have increased TNF-α concentrations. Increased plasma concentrations of TNF-α in cats with CHF may offer insights into the pathophysiologic mechanisms of heart failure and provide targets for therapeutic interventions. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:640–642)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To determine echocardiographic, electrocardiographic, and histologic abnormalities in Doberman Pinschers with occult cardiomyopathy that died suddenly and to compare findings with those of Doberman Pinschers with cardiomyopathy that died of congestive heart failure.

Design

Retrospective study.

Animals

14 Doberman Pinschers with occult cardiomyopathy that died suddenly (group 1) and 40 Doberman Pinschers with cardiomyopathy and congestive heart failure (group 2).

Procedure

Serial echocardiography and continuous, ambulatory electrocardiographic (Holter) monitoring were performed. Hearts of dogs that died suddenly were examined histologically.

Results

Group-2 dogs died at a significantly older age than did group-1 dogs. All dogs had echocardiographic abnormalities, but changes were more severe in group-2 than in group-1 dogs. Ventricular tachyarrhythmias were documented in all dogs. Group-1 dogs were more likely to have episodes of sustained ventricular tachycardia than were group-2 dogs. Multifocal interstitial fibrosis and replacement of muscle fibers with collagen and fat were consistently observed in hearts from dogs that died suddenly. Ten group-1 dogs had received antiarrhythmic treatment prior to death.

Clinical Implications

Occult cardiomyopathy can be identified by means of echocardiography and Holter monitoring in Doberman Pinschers. Doberman Pinschers with cardiomyopathy that had episodes of sustained (> 30 seconds) ventricular tachycardia were at risk of dying suddenly. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;210:505–511)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Characteristic alterations in the serum and urine biochemical profiles of Doberman Pinschers with congestive heart failure (chf) resulting from idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy were determined. We compared these alterations with those observed in 2 other models of chf: rate overload induced by rapid ventricular pacing in dogs, and biventricular hypertrophy and dilatation induced in turkey poults by furazolidone toxicosis. Serum and urine biochemical changes in both models of chf in dogs were mild to moderate in degree, and were moderately consistent. They could be attributed to secondary neurohumoral, hepatic, and renal effects of heart failure. The most marked and consistent changes observed were mildly decreased anion gap that developed, in part, because of decreased serum sodium concentration, moderately increased catecholamine concentrations, moderate lactaciduria, hyposthenuria, and mildly increased urea concentrations and liver enzyme activities. In birds with furazolidone cardiomyopathy, we observed mild increases in serum urate concentration, liver and muscle enzyme activities, but moderately increased sodium concentration with decreased chloride concentration. In the pacing and furazolidone models, in which chf was rapidly induced, moderate to marked hypoproteinemia was attributable to decreases in albumin and globulin concentrations. Using the avian model we found that the hypoproteinemia could be largely attributed to blood volume expansion, and to a lesser extent, inanition. Development of hypoalbuminemia during rapid ventricular pacing and furazolidone treatment may contribute to the effects of rate overload or drug toxicity in the pathogenesis of chf, because hypoalbuminemia may contribute to altered hemodynamics and neuroendocrine system activation. Our data indicate that clinical biochemical analysis of serum and urine may be useful for assessing progression of chf.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

dragon in congestive heart failure with an aneurysm. The left atrium (LA) and ventricle (V) are both dilated. Moderate pericardial effusion (PE) is present. The aorta (Ao) is moderately distended with a hyperechoic structure of a suspected aneurysm that

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Baseline plasma norepinephrine (ne) and epinephrine (epi) concentrations were measured in dogs with naturally acquired heart failure (hf) caused by either degenerative mitral valve disease and mitral regurgitation (mr) or idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (dcm). Compared with controls (clinically normal), dogs with hf had increased plasma ne concentration, which was correlated positively with clinical severity of hf. Dogs with the most severe degree of hf (New York Heart Association functional class IV) had mean ne concentration significantly (P < 0.05) greater than that of dogs with all other functional classes of hf. Overall, mean ne concentration in dogs with dcm was greater than that in dogs with mr. Plasma epi concentration was not different between control dogs and dogs with hf or between dogs with dcm or mr. Correlations were not found between the echocardiographically derived end systolic volume index (used as an estimate of myocardial function) and plasma ne and epi concentrations or serum sodium or potassium concentration. Dogs with dcm, as a group, had a small but Significant (P < 0.05) decrease in serum sodium concentration, compared with dogs with mr. This difference was maintained only for class-IV hf when dogs were separated according to functional hf class. In dogs with dcm, Significant inverse correlation was found between plasma ne and serum sodium concentrations. When grouped together, all dogs with hf maintained this relationship; however, dogs with mr did not have correlation between plasma ne and serum sodium concentrations. Plasma epi and serum sodium concentrations were not correlated for any group. It was concluded that in dogs, plasma ne, but not epi, concentration is high in relation to the clinical severity of naturally acquired hf. Although dogs with dcm overall had greater increase in plasma ne concentration than did dogs with primary mr, a direct relation was not evident between a noninvasive estimate of myocardial function and plasma ne concentration. The lower serum sodium values found in dogs with dcm, especially those with most severe clinical hf, along with the higher mean plasma ne concentration, may indicate a greater degree of decompensation and neurohumoral activation, compared with that in dogs with mr.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

failure, along with physical examination, thoracic radiography, and electrocardiography. 13 Serum C-terminal BNP concentration is typically high in dogs with heart disease, regardless of whether they have congestive heart failure. 14–16 , a Until

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

infected cats may resolve clinical signs of right-sided congestive heart failure and chylothorax. In addition, findings in one of these cats suggested that removal of all adult heartworms may not be necessary for resolution of clinical signs. Most cats

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

benefit from nutritional modification. ABBREVIATIONS CHF Congestive heart failure AAFCO Association of American Feed Control Officials a. Hohenhaus AE, Simantov R, Fox PR, et al. Evaluation of plasma homocysteine and B vitamin

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Radiographically, pulmonary venous distension and a mild perihilar interstitial infiltrate were evident. These changes were consistent with left-sided congestive heart failure. Echocardiographic findings confirmed the diagnosis of PDA (left-to-right shunt

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association