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Objective

To determine whether mammary gland or colostral characteristics at calving could be used to predict colostral immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) concentration or intramammary infection (IMI) and whether leakage of colostrum affects IgG1 concentration.

Design

Prospective study.

Animals

113 multiparous Holstein cows.

Procedure

Cows were examined within 3 hours of calving, and mammary gland and colostral characteristics, colostral volume, somatic cell count, and concentrations of IgG1, fat, and protein were determined. Bacteriologic culture of mammary secretions was performed approximately 14 and 7 days before calving and at calving. Associations of gland and colostral characteristics with colostral IgG1 concentration, colostral volume, and IMI were examined.

Results

Thick or thin colostrum had higher IgG1 concentration than colostrum of intermediate viscosity. Colostrum from mammary glands that were firm had low IgG1 concentration. Colostral IgG1 concentration was weakly correlated with volume. Intramammary infection was likely to be detected if colostrum contained clots or blood or if the California Mastitis Test (CMT) score was ≥ 2. Somatic cell count was higher for glands with IMI than for uninfected glands, and CMT score was correlated with cell count.

Clinical Implications

Mammary gland and colostral characteristics were of little value in predicting IgG1 concentration. Our findings do not support recommendations that first milking colostrum that is thin (watery) or that is from cows producing large volumes not be fed to dairy calves. Colostral characteristics, particularly CMT score, were of value for predicting IMI. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;214:1817-1823)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To compare the concentration of IgG in colostrum between Holstein and Guernsey cows and among cows of various lactations.

Design

Cross-sectional cohort study.

Sample Population

Colostrum samples from 77 Holstein and 24 Guernsey cows.

Procedure

Colostrum samples were obtained from 101 cows. Colostral IgG concentration was determined, using a radial immunodiffusion assay. Regression analysis was used to determine the effect of breed and lactation number on colostral IgG concentration. Survival analysis and t-tests were used to compare the proportion of colostrum samples that would provide 100 g of IgG for various volumes of colostral intake.

Results

Guernsey cows produced 36.4 g of IgG/L of colostrum more than that of Holstein cows. Cows in the third or greater lactation produced 19.5 g of IgG/L of colostrum more than that of first-lactation cows. The IgG concentration of colostrum produced by second-lactation cows did not differ significantly from that produced by first-lactation cows. The colostral IgG concentration of these Holstein and Guernsey cows was higher than values that have been reported elsewhere.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Volume of colostrum needed to meet IgG intake goals is probably lower for Guernsey cows than Holstein cows. Colostrum from first-lactation cows was adequate in IgG content. The practice of discarding colostrum from first-lactation cows on the basis of inadequate IgG content was not justified in this study. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:1136–1139)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine serum lactoferrin concentrations (SLFC) in neonatal calves before and after ingestion of colostrum and to develop models that predict SLFC as a function of colostral lactoferrin concentrations (CLFC) in calves.

Animals—13 Holstein calves.

Procedure—Calves were fed 4 L of colostrum via oroesophageal feeder within 3 hours after birth. Serum samples were collected before ingestion of colostrum (day 0) and 2, 4, 6, and 7 days after birth. Colostrum and serum IgG concentrations were measured by use of radial immunodiffusion. The CLFC and SLFC were determined by use of an ELISA.

Results—Mean ± SD SLFC on days 0, 2, 4, 6, and 7 were 2.5 ± 1.6 (range 0.47 to 7.1), 6.0 ± 3.0 (range 2.0 to 16.6), 12.0 ± 12.4 (range 0.0 to 43.5), 17.1 ± 13.6 (range 2.2 to 39.4), and 13.6 ± 16.4 (range 0.0 to 43.8) mg/ml, respectively. The SLFC on days 6 and 7 differed significantly from SLFC on day 0. The model that best estimated SLFC on day 6 predicted that (SLFC)2 was a function of the logarithm of relative efficiency of passive transfer (REPT) and ([CLFC]2 × [REPT]2), where R 2 = 0.4. The model for SLFC on day 7 predicted that (SLFC)2 was a function of log(REPT), where R 2 = 0.44.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Definitive evidence for passive transfer of lactoferrin via colostrum is lacking, because SLFC on day 2 or 4 were not significantly different than day 0. Relative efficiency of lactoferrin absorption was directly related to SLFC on day 6 but inversely related to SLFC on day 7. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:476–478)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

to reduce the incidence of FPT in calves. 3,4 Colostrum replacement products, derived from either bovine plasma (or serum) extracts or lacteal derivatives, are formulated to provide ≥ 100 g of IgG/dose in addition to a variety of nutrients including

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether passive transfer of IgG in neonatal kittens affects plasma opsonic capacity and neutrophil phagocytic and oxidative burst responses to bacteria in vitro.

Animals—22 kittens from 6 specific pathogen-free queens.

Procedure—Kittens were randomized at birth into the following treatment groups: colostrum-fed, colostrum-deprived, or colostrum-deprived supplemented with feline or equine IgG. Blood samples were collected at intervals from birth to 56 days of age. Plasma IgG concentrations were determined by radial immunodiffusion assay. Neutrophil function was assessed by a flow cytometry assay providing simultaneous measurement of bacteria-induced phagocytosis and oxidative burst. The opsonic capacity of kitten plasma was determined in an opsonophagocytosis assay with bacteria incubated in untreated or heat-inactivated plasma.

Results—Among treatment groups, there were no significant differences in neutrophil phagocytic and oxidative burst responses to bacteria or opsonic capacity of plasma. In all samples of plasma, inactivation of complement and other heat-labile opsonins significantly reduced the opsonic capacity. Plasma IgG concentrations in kittens did not correlate with neutrophil function or plasma opsonic capacity before or after inactivation of complement.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The plasma opsonic capacity and neutrophil phagocytic and oxidative burst responses in vitro of kittens receiving passive transfer of IgG via colostrum intake or IgG supplementation and those deprived of colostrum were similar. The alternate complement pathway or other heat-labile opsonins may be more important than IgG in bacterial opsonization and phagocytosis. ( Am J Vet Res 2003;64:538–543)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

excreted in milk and colostrum of JD-infected cows. 5,6 Thus, raw bovine MC contaminated with MAP may contribute to transmission of MAP within dairy farms. 6 Feeding adequate- or good-quality MC is essential for preventing failure of passive transfer

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Absorption of colostral immunoglobulins by Holstein calves was studied in 3 herds in which 3 methods of colostrum feeding were used. Failure of passive transfer, as determined by calf serum immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) concentration < 10 mg/ml at 48 hours of age, was diagnosed in 61.4% of calves from a dairy in which calves were nursed by their dams, 19.3% of calves from a dairy using nipple-bottle feeding, and 10.8% of calves from a dairy using tube feeding.

The management factor determined to have the greatest influence on the probability of failure of passive transfer in the herds using artificial methods of colostrum feeding (bottle feeding or tube feeding) was the volume of colostrum fed as it affected the amount of IgG1 received by the calf. In dairies that used artificial feeding methods, failure of passive transfer was infrequent in calves fed ≥ 100 g IgG1 in the first colostrum feeding. In the dairy that allowed calves to suckle, prevalence of failure of passive transfer was greater than 50% even among calves nursed by cows with above-average colostral IgG1 concentration. Analysis of the effect of other management factors on calf immunoglobulin absorption revealed small negative effects associated with the use of previously frozen colostrum and the use of colostrum from cows with long nonlactating intervals.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

ad libitum starting at 21 days of age and continuing until the conclusion of the study. Six colostrum-deprived Holstein bull calves were purchased from a large commercial dairy farm in Indiana. At the farm, calves were removed from the dams

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

The effect of postnatal acid-base status on the absorption of colostral immunoglobulins by calves was examined in 2 field studies. In study 1, blood pH at 2 and 4 hours after birth was related to serum IgG1 concentration 12 hours after colostrum feeding (P < 0.05). Decreased IgG1 absorption from colostrum was associated with respiratory, rather than metabolic, acidosis, because blood PCO2 at 2 and 4 hours after birth was negatively related to IgG1 absorption (P < 0.05), whereas serum bicarbonate concentration was not significantly related to IgG1 absorption.

Acidosis was frequently observed in the 30 calves of study 1. At birth, all calves had venous PCO2 value ≥ 60 mm of Hg, 20 of the calves had blood pH < 7.20, and 8 of the calves had blood bicarbonate concentration < 24 mEq/L. Blood pH values were considerably improved by 4 hours after birth; only 7 calves had blood pH values < 7.20.

Calves lacking risk factors for acidosis were examined in study 2, and blood pH values at 4 hours after birth ranged from 7.25 to 7.39. Blood pH was unrelated to IgG1 absorption in the calves of study 2. However, blood PCO2 was again found to be negatively related to colostral IgG1 absorption (P < 0.005).

Results indicate that postnatal respiratory acidosis in calves can adversely affect colostral immunoglobulin absorption, despite adequate colostrum intake early in the absorptive period.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To examine systemic immunity in kittens, including transfer of maternal immunoglobulins from the queen to kittens, and subsequent decay of passively obtained immunoglobulins.

Animals

6 healthy queens and their 46 kittens.

Procedure

Immunoglobulin concentrations were measured in serum, colostrum, and milk of queens and in their kittens' sera. Decay rate constants and half-lives of maternally derived immunoglobulins were determined. To determine intestinal absorption, foreign IgG was given to kittens at 6- to 8-hour intervals after birth, and bovine IgM was given to kittens at birth.

Results

Immunoglobulin concentrations of milk and colostrum did not differ significantly after removal of milk fat. Mean IgG concentration was higher in colostrum/milk, whereas mean IgA and IgM concentrations were lower than those in the queens' serum. No IgG or IgA was detected in any of the precolostral serum samples obtained from kittens. Small amounts of IgM were present in the sera from 5 kittens at birth. Transferred IgG and IgA decreased rapidly with half-lives of 4.4 ± 3.57 and 1.93 ± 1.94 days, respectively. Serum IgM concentration increased irregularly during the first week of life, followed by a steady increase. Foreign IgG given up to 12 hours after birth was detected in kittens' serum, whereas IgG given at or after 16 hours was not found in any kitten's serum.

Conclusions

Milk and colostral immunoglobulin concentrations did not differ significantly. The half-lives of maternally derived IgG and IgA in kittens were shorter than those reported in dogs. IgG given at or after 16 hours of life was not absorbed by neonatal kittens.

Clinical Relevance

Queen's milk obtained anytime during lactation may be used as a replacement for colostrum as a source of antibodies for neonatal kittens. Kittens at risk for neonatal isoerythrolysis must only be removed from the queens during the first day of life. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:1653–1658)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research