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Summary

Gram-negative bacterial infections were documented in 6 neonatal New World camelids (5 llamas and 1 alpaca). The organisms isolated from blood before death or from multiple organs after death were Escherichia coli (n = 3), Actinobacillus sp (n = 1), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 1). Only 2 crias survived, and 1 became blind secondary to retinal detachment and ocular inflammation, which developed after treatment for bacterial infection.

Abnormal events during the perinatal period (prematurity, dystocia, cesarean section, weak at birth) were reported in all 6 crias. Signs of depression, convulsions, and/or coma were observed in all animals. Diarrhea and respiratory distress were also noticed in the 3 crias that died shortly after admission.

Serum immunoglobulins were assessed, but without the benefit of a stall-side test specific for llama immunoglobulins. All crias were suspected to have poor transfer of maternal immunoglobulins. Hemograms and serum biochemical values prior to the initiation of treatment were obtained on 5 of the 6 crias. Total nucleated cells ranged from 1,400 to 23,100 cells/μl. Four of the 5 crias had a left shift, and 2 crias had toxic neutrophils. Serum glucose concentrations, measured in 5 of 6 crias, ranged from 83 to 293 mg/dl. Serum creatinine values were high in 2 of 5 crias, 1 of which had acute tubular necrosis. Three crias with high serum electrolyte (sodium, chloride, or potassium) values subsequently died. Arterial blood gas values were assessed in 3 crias, 1 of which had respiratory alkalosis and mild hypoxemia.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objectives

To test whether Oxytetracycline inactivates collagenase when combined as a potential treatment for retained fetal membranes in cattle and to determine whether Oxytetracycline passes to blood from fetal membranes after intraplacental injection.

Design

Prospective, controlled study.

Sample Population

288 placentomes from 12 cows in their third trimester of pregnancy and 4 cows at term pregnancy.

Procedure

8 experimental groups were established: saline control, collagenase, collagenase plus Oxytetracycline at 3 dosages, and Oxytetracycline at 3 dosages. Placentomes were infused through an umbilical vessel with the test solutions and incubated at 39 C for 4 hours. Immediately after incubation, the force needed to detach cotyledons from caruncles was measured by a manometry technique. Cotyledon-caruncle interface fluids were analyzed for hydroxyproline (collagen breakdown) and total protein contents. A combination of collagenase and Oxytetracycline was injected via umbilical arteries of cows undergoing cesarean section and in cows with retained fetal membranes after natural delivery. Antibiotic residue in blood was determined by the Bacillus stearothermophilus disk assay.

Results

There were no significant differences among collagenase and collagenase plus Oxytetracycline groups in the amount of pressure needed to separate cotyledon from caruncle, amount of hydroxyproline released, and amount of total protein broken down. The 4 cows tested negative for Oxytetracycline in the blood.

Clinical Relevance

Oxytetracycline and collagenase may be a potential combination treatment for retained fetal membranes in cattle. In addition, the lack of antibiotic residue detection in blood may be of regulatory relevance. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:522–525)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

It has been shown that zearalenone disrupts early pregnancy in swine without altering intrauterine content of estradiol 17β or progesterone, embryo migration, or estradiol-17β synthesis by blastocysts. However, serum concentrations of progesterone were reduced 2 to 3 weeks after mating in gilts that ingested zearalenone. Therefore, progesterone was administered to gilts during early pregnancy to determine whether it could counteract the detrimental actions of zearalenone on embryonic development. Thirty-two crossbred gilts (Hampshire × Chester White × Yorkshire × Duroc) were assigned randomly to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments: zearalenone (z); zearalenone plus progesterone (zp); progesterone (p); or control (c). From postmating days 4 to 15, z- and zp-treated gilts were fed 1 mg of z/kg of body weight, and p-treated and c gilts were fed ethanol as vehicle in a cornsoybean diet. On postmating days 3 to 15, p- and zp-treated gilts were injected im with 100 mg of progesterone, and c and z-treated gilts were injected with progesterone carrier (15% ethanol, 15% benzyl alcohol, 70% propylene glycol). Blood was collected from gilts by puncture of the jugular vein daily from days 3 to 15, on alternate days from days 17 to 31, and then twice weekly until the end of the experiment. Fetal development was assessed in z- and zp-treated gilts on postmating day 47.6 ± 2.9 by cesarean section and in p-treated and c gilts at slaughter on postmating days 51.2 ± 3.2. Serum concentrations of progesterone in p-treated gilts were greater on days 7 to 8, 10 to 15, 17, and 19 than in c gilts. Serum concentrations of progesterone were greater on days 8, 10, and 12 in zp-treated than in c gilts. However, serum concentrations of progesterone were lower in zp-treated gilts than in c gilts on postmating days 19 to 31. Serum concentrations of progesterone were lower in z-treated gilts than c gilts on postmating days 15, 17, and 19. At slaughter or cesarean section, viable fetuses were not found in z-treated gilts, but 80% of the c and p-treated gilts had viable fetuses. All z-treated gilts were classified as pseudopregnant because uteri were turgid and the ovaries had functional corpora lutea. Uteri of zp-treated gilts appeared normal. Corpora lutea of pregnancy had regressed by postmating day 35 in 7 of 8 zp-treated gilts. Crown-to-rump length was similar between p-treated and c gilts (94 vs 92 mm). Fetal weight was similar between p-treated and c gilts (70 vs 62 g). These data demonstrate that 100 mg of progesterone/d failed to counteract the adverse effects of 1 mg of z/kg of body weight on early pregnancy in primiparous gilts.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effect of homologous amniotic fluid and meconium inoculated intratracheally into the lungs of neonatal rats.

Animals—153 male 7-day-old Fischer-344 rats.

Procedure—Amniotic fluid was obtained by cesarean section from the uterus of pregnant rats and meconium was collected at the time of birth from the gastrointestinal tract of neonatal rats. Neonatal rats were randomly allocated into 5 treatment groups. Two groups received 0.05 ml of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution; the third and fourth groups received 0.05 ml of 50% or 100% amniotic fluid, respectively; the fifth group was inoculated with 0.05 ml of a 20% suspension of meconium. Six or 7 rat pups/group were euthanatized by exsanguination under halothane anesthesia at postinoculation days 1, 3, 7, and 14. The magnitude of injury and inflammatory response was determined by biochemical and cytologic analyses of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.

Results—Inoculation with saline solution and amniotic fluid did not induce pulmonary injury or inflammatory response. Inoculation with meconium induced significant ( P < 0.01) injury and inflammatory response, characterized by the release of cytosolic enzymes and recruitment of neutrophils in the lung.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Saline solution is an innocuous vehicle that can be safely used in intratracheal inoculations in neonatal rats. Homologous amniotic fluid, despite containing keratin and epidermal cells, does not cause acute injury or inflammation in the lung. In contrast, meconium acts as a toxic substance injuring respiratory cells and causing a vigorous but transient leukocytic inflammatory reaction in the lungs. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1636–1641)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Failure to obtain passive transfer of immunity via colostrum can be detrimental to the health and survival of a young pup. It has been stated that pups that do not receive colostrum in the first 2 days after birth, be given adult dog serum as a source of protective immunoglobulins. Twenty-five Beagle pups were obtained by cesarean section from 6 Beagle bitches. The pups were allotted to 3 groups at birth. Group 1 was a control group and was allowed to suckle colostrum. Group-2 pups received 22 ml of pooled adult dog serum/kg of body weight (10 ml/lb) sc at birth. Group-3 pups were given 22 ml of pooled adult dog serum/kg by stomach tube at birth. Pups from groups 2 and 3 were separated from the bitch for 48 hours to prevent colostral antibody absorption and were fed a commercially available milk replacer by stomach tube. After 48 hours, all pups were returned to the bitch until they were weaned at 6 weeks of age. Blood samples were collected from all of the pups at birth and on days 1, 2, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35. The concentration of IgA, IgG, and IgM in serum was determined by radial immunodiffusion and compared by use of a one-way analysis of variance. The control pups had significantly higher serum concentrations of IgA and IgG, than the pups in groups 2 and 3 on days 1 and 2 and 2 and 7, respectively. Group-2 pups had significantly higher serum IgM concentrations on day 1 than either group 1- or group-3 pups.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Reciprocal embryo transfers were made between scrapie-inoculated and scrapie-free sheep (Cheviot and Suffolk breeds) to measure scrapie transmission via the embryo (using offspring from embryos of scrapie-inoculated donors and scrapie-free recipients) and via the uterus (using offspring from embryos of scrapie-free donors and scrapie-inoculated recipients taken by cesarean section). Two control groups of offspring, 1 from scrapie-free parents (negative) and 1 from scrapie-inoculated parents (positive), also were included. All sheep were observed for clinical signs of scrapie until death or for a minimum of 60 months. Final diagnosis was made on the basis of histopathologic findings or results of mouse inoculation and/or proteinase-K-resistant protein analysis. Thirty to 61% of the scrapie-inoculated donor/recipient sheep within groups developed scrapie within 8 to 44 months after inoculation. None of the scrapie-free donor/recipients, including those gestating embryos from scrapie-inoculated donors, developed scrapie. Also, none of the offspring observed to ≥ 24 months of age from reciprocal cross, via embryo (0/67), or via the uterus (0/25), or from the negative-control group (0/33) developed scrapie. Fifty-six of the offspring via embryo, 19 of these via the uterus, and 31 negative controls survived to ≥ 60 months of age. Of the 21 sheep in the positive-control group, 2 (9.5%) developed scrapie, 1 at 31 months of age and 1 at 42 months of age. In the Cheviot offspring, the percentage of sheep carrying the short incubation allele ranged from 24 to 44% and the percentage in the Suffolk offspring ranged from 61 to 83%. These proportions indicate high degree of susceptibility to the disease. Results indicate that under the conditions of these experiments, scrapie was not transmitted to the offspring via the embryo or the uterus.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

section because of dystocia Cesarean section is indicated for cows with dystocia when assisted vaginal delivery is ineffective and fetotomy is not an option. In a study of 173 beef cattle that underwent cesarean section because of dystocia, the overall

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

concentration was linearly related to air volume–to–blood volume ratio. See page 922 Survival rates of mares and foals and postoperative complications and fertility of mares after cesarean section A review of medical records for 95 mares that

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

the fetal head by use of manual pressure to collapse the cranium; however, these attempts were unsuccessful. On the basis of the experiences and preferences of the attending clinicians, a decision was made to perform a cesarean section to minimize

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

-being and maturation, and treatment of the bitch with tocolytic agents, supportive care, and, when the pups were deemed mature enough for birth, cesarean section. Results While the owner deliberated treatment options, the bitch was placed in a kennel

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association