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’Université de Montréal for each snake and included uric acid, BUN, total calcium, phosphorus, total proteins, GGT, ALT, ALP, AST, total cholesterol, CK, glucose, LDH, NAG, and biliary acid concentrations using standard techniques ( Table 1 ) . The NAG

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Calcium oxalate calculi are the second most common type of calculi in dogs. 1 Males, small-breed dogs, and middle-aged to older dogs appear to be at an increased risk. 2 In North America, the percentage of canine calculi composed of CaOx has

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objectives

To determine usefulness of a micropartition system for calcium fractionation of canine serum, and to establish reference values for protein-bound, complexed, and ionized calcium fractions in clinically normal dogs.

Design

Performance characteristics of a micropartition system were evaluated, using serum from clinically normal dogs. This micropartition system was then used to determine a reference range for calcium fractions.

Animals

13 clinically normal dogs.

Procedure

Dog serum was placed in the micropartition system, and spun for 20 minutes at 1,300 × g. Total calcium concentration, ionized calcium concentration, and pH were measured in whole serum, and total calcium concentration was measured in the ultrafiltrate. The protein-bound fraction was calculated by subtracting total calcium of the ultrafiltrate from total calcium of whole serum. The ionized calcium measurement of whole serum was subtracted from the total calcium measurement of the ultrafiltrate, determining the complexed calcium fraction.

Results

During validation of the ability of the micropartition system to separate calcium fractions, no significant amount of serum calcium was adsorbed by the plastic micropartition system or membrane. The micropartition membrane separated the protein-bound calcium fraction (retentate) from the ultrafiltrate, which contained ionized and complexed fractions of calcium. Concentrations of protein-bound, ionized, and complexed calcium from clinically normal dogs were determined to be 3.40 ± 0.63, 5.49 ± 0.17, and 1.01 ± 0.30 mg/dl, representing 34, 56, and 10% of the total calcium concentration, respectively.

Conclusions

This method is a rapid, repeatable means to completely fractionate serum calcium, and most importantly provides accurate assessment of the protein-bound and complexed calcium fractions.

Clinical Relevance

Complete assessment of calcium fractions may increase sensitivity for detection of disease processes that affect calcium metabolism.(Am J Vet Res 1996;57:268-271 )

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Primary hyperparathyroidism is a disorder of calcium homeostasis. 1–6 The parathyroid gland is responsible for calcium homeostasis. 1–5 In the event of hypocalcemia, the parathyroid gland produces PTH, which acts on the kidneys and intestines

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

. Another limitation of those studies 9,10 was that control dogs were classified as such on the basis of history alone instead of with radiographic screening to verify that they did not have uroliths. Calcium oxalate uroliths are a common incidental finding

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

uric acid group of compounds, which includes ammonium urate), 43,707 (46%) were primarily composed of calcium oxalate (monohydrate and dihydrate), and 40,554 (43%) were primarily composed of struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate). Only 2

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To measure plasma concentration of ionized calcium in healthy green iguanas.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—9 juvenile and 21 (10 male, 11 female) adult iguanas.

Procedure—Blood samples were obtained from each iguana, and plasma calcium, glucose, phosphorus, uric acid, total protein, albumin, globulin, potassium, and ionized calcium concentrations, aspartate transaminase (AST) activity, and pH were measured. Heparinized blood was used for measurement of ionized calcium concentration and blood pH. A CBC was also performed to assess the health of the iguanas.

Results—Significant differences were not detected among the 3 groups (juveniles, males, and females) with regard to ionized calcium concentration. Mean ionized calcium concentration measured in blood was 1.47 ± 0.105 mmol/L. Significant differences were detected between juveniles and adults for values of phosphorus, glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, and AST activity.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Ionized calcium concentration provides a clinical measurement of the physiologically active calcium in circulation. Evaluation of physiologically active calcium in animals with suspected calcium imbalance that have total plasma calcium concentrations within reference range or in gravid animals with considerably increased total plasma calcium concentrations is vital for determining a therapeutic plan. Accurate evaluation of calcium status will provide assistance in the diagnosis of renal disease and seizures and allow for better evaluation of the health status of gravid female iguanas. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;219:326–328)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

calcium carbonate into noncritical bone defects in the third metacarpal bone of horses was evaluated by use of light microscopy, histochemical and immunohistochemical analyses, and TEM. We hypothesized that the implanted material would be biocompatible in

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Serum ionized calcium (ICa) concentration was determined in 141 clinically normal dairy cattle by use of a direct-measuring calcium ion-selective electrode instrument. Mean serum ICa concentration 2 hours after blood withdrawal was 4.59 mg/dl; range varied from 3.79 to 5.25 mg/dl. Regression analysis indicated a high degree of correlation between ICa and serum total calcium concentrations if serum stored at 23 C was analyzed within 12 hours after blood withdrawal.

Abnormal ICa concentration was detected in 19 of 85 dairy cows that were affected with various pathologic conditions. All 19 cows had hypocalcemia (n = 13 with parturient hypocalcemia, 4 with hypomagnesemic tetany, and 2 with renal disease). In all cases, the ICa concentration clearly related to the clinical manifestation of disease and the functional status of the cow's calcium metabolism.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To elucidate the ultrastructural details of calcium oxalate-containing urinary calculi from dogs.

Sample Population—38 specimens selected from a collection of 8,297 oxalate-containing urinary calculi from dogs: 22 specimens composed of calcium oxalate (calcium oxalate monohydrate [COM], calcium oxalate dihydrate [COD], or COM and COD) and 16 specimens composed of calcium oxalate with amorphous calcium phosphate.

Procedure—Analyses of specimens included use of plain, reflected, and polarized light microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with backscattered electron (BSE) imagery, and electron microprobe analysis.

Results—Four texture types were observed in calcium oxalate calculi; 4 texture types of calcium oxalatecalcium phosphate-mixed calculi were recognized. Texture types were delineated through differences in calcium oxalate crystal sizes, which were affected by urine supersaturation and abundance of crystal nucleation sites. Segregation of calcium oxalate from calcium phosphate indicated they do not precipitate under the same conditions. Deposition of calcium phosphate between calcium oxalate crystals decreased the volume of pore spaces within calculi. Porosity was observed along boundaries between COM and COD. Minute pores increased the surface area of calculi exposed to urine, and this increase in liquid-solid interface promotes interaction of crystals with the surrounding urine.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Calcium oxalate urolithiasis is of major concern, because it is often a recurrent disease among dogs, principally treated by surgical removal of calculi, with few effective dissolution strategies. Understanding the ultrastructure and mineralogic content of calcium oxalate and its association with amorphous calcium phosphate is a step toward the solution of this increasingly important medical problem. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:237–247)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research