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SUMMARY

In 33 healthy dogs, 66 bronchoalveolar lavage samples from the right and left caudal lung lobes were analyzed for volume of return, cellularity, differential cellularity, and immunophenotypic lymphocyte subpopulations. Lavage return was 64.8% (mean) following 3 sequential 25-ml lavages, for a total lavage volume of 75 ml. With this technique, 21.1 × 106 cells/sample (mean) were obtained. The cellular components of bronchoalveolar lavage samples, in decreasing order of frequency, were alveolar macrophages (79.4%), lymphocytes (13.5%), eosinophils (3.6%), mast cells (2.1%), epithelial cells (0.8%), and neutrophils (0.6%). Mean alveolar lymphocyte subpopulation frequencies, determined in 18 samples, for pan T, CD4, and CD8 cells were 52, 21.9, and 17.8%, respectively, with a CD4/CD8 ratio of 1.3. Variables analyzed did not vary between right and left caudal lung lobes, nor were they affected by body weight.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

nasopharyngeal swab (DNP), transtracheal wash (TTW), and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) being most common. 11 Each sampling method has advantages and disadvantages, but research shows that agreement among the different methods for the detection of bacterial

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine reference values for cytologic examination results of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and to investigate effects of repeated lavages on pulmonary health and on results of cytologic examination of BALF in dogs.

Animals—16 healthy adult Beagles.

Procedure—All dogs underwent pulmonary lavage to obtain BALF. Eleven dogs were repeatedly lavaged 6 times at 5– to 7–week intervals. Analyses for total and differential cell counts and for viability of cells before and after cell processing were performed. Arterial blood gas analysis before and after bronchoalveolar lavage was used to study the safety of the lavage procedure. Histologic and radiologic examinations were used to study effects of repeated lavages on pulmonary health.

Results—Mean (± SD) cell count was 104 ± 69 cells/µl, comprising 75 ± 7% alveolar macrophages, 13 ± 6% lymphocytes, 5 ± 4% neutrophils, 4 ± 5% eosinophils, 2 ± 2% mast cells, 0.6 ± 0.7% epithelial cells, and 0.3 ± 0.4% plasma cells. Centrifugation of samples and washing of cells caused significant cell loss (59 ± 13%). Repeated lavages did not cause significant variations in cell counts of BALF or results of arterial blood gas analysis, thoracic radiography, or histologic examination of pulmonary specimens. Only a moderate, although significant, decrease in arterial oxygen content was observed after bronchoalveolar lavage.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Analysis indicated that several lavages performed at 5– to 7–week intervals can safely and reliably be used to study the kinetics of pathologic processes in pulmonary tissues or for evaluation of therapeutic efficacy. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:13–16)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To study the effects of extended transportation on the composition of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) obtained from horses.

Animals

30 horses (14 males, 16 females; 25 Thoroughbreds and 5 Thoroughbred-Arabian crossbreds; 27 to 30 months old) without a history or clinical signs of respiratory tract disease. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed on nontransported control horses (groups 1 and 2) and transported horses (group 3).

Procedure

20 horses were used to determine the effect of 41 hours of transportation on the composition of BALF (group 3). Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was analyzed for recovered volume, number and distribution of nucleated cells, total protein and phospholipid concentrations, and phospholipid composition.

Results

Total number of nucleated cells in BALF from group-3 horses increased by approximately fourfold after transportation. Total protein concentration in BALF from group-3 horses also increased by approximately fivefold after transportation. Total phosphorus concentrations in group-3 horses decreased significantly from time 0 to immediately after transportation. In group-3 horses, the most characteristic change in composition of BALF after transport was a significant decrease in the concentration of phosphatidylglycerol.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance

The decrease in phosphatidylglycerol concentration in BALF after transportation indicates a reduction in the quantity of surfactant. This change may reflect either a decreased production of surfactant by alveolar type II epithelial cells or an increased removal of surfactant from the alveolar region. It is likely that extended transportation resulted in a decreased concentration of surfactant in BALF. Such a decrease may reduce the pulmonary defence mechanisms in the alveolar region, possibly resulting in infection. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:531–534)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Twenty-four healthy cats underwent bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage to determine the normal cytologic environment of the lower respiratory tract of cats. Initial screening to ensure the health of the study population included complete histories, physical examinations, thoracic radiography, cbc, serologic tests for feline leukemia virus, feline immunodeficiency virus, and occult heartworm, and sugar and Baermann fecal flotation. In 18 cats, protected catheter brush samples of airway secretions from the lavaged lung segment were taken for culture of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and mycoplasma. Bronchial lavage fluid (5 sequential 10-ml aliquots of normal saline solution) was pooled and filtered with cotton gauze. The unspun sample was used for determination of a total nucleated cell count. Lavage fluid was cytocentrifuged and 500 cells/slide were scored for determination of the cellular differential. Activity of lactate dehydrogenase and concentrations of total protein and IgG within the supernatant were measured, and assays were performed to detect the presence of IgA and IgM. Complete histologic evaluation of the lavaged lung of each of 6 random-source cats was performed after differential cell counting revealed 18% eosinophils within bronchoalveolar lavage fluid recovered from this group.

Alveolar macrophages were the predominant cells encountered; however, a quarter of all cells recovered were eosinophils. A significant relationship was not found between the abundance of eosinophils in the lavage fluid, and either isolation of aerobic bacteria, high total nucleated cell counts, total protein concentrations, or activity of lactate dehydrogenase. Histologic evaluation of the lungs of 5 of 6 random-source cats revealed normal lungs in 2 cats, and minimal abnormal change in 3 others. Evaluation of the lungs from 1 random source cat revealed acute, mild eosinophilic bronchiolitis. We conclude that large numbers of eosinophils may be retrieved from the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of healthy cats.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Tracheal wash and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid analyses were performed in 9 dogs that had mycotic infections with pulmonary involvement. Characteristic organisms were identified in tracheal wash fluid in 3 of 7 dogs with blastomycosis. Organisms were identified in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in 5 of 7 dogs with blastomycosis and in one dog with histoplasmosis. Organisms were not found in either fluid in one dog with coccidioidomycosis. These procedures should be considered for dogs with suspected mycotic infections that involve the lungs and that cannot be diagnosed by less invasive means.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

The α1-proteinase inhibitors of trypsin, Spi1, Spi3A, and Spi3B, in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (balf) and serum of horses were separated by electrophoresis, and their proportions were quantified in 12 control horses and 12 with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (cofd). A significantly lower proportion of Spi3B (P < 0.05) and higher proportion of Spi1 (P < 0.02 to P < 0.01) were detected in balf, compared with serum, in control and copd-affected horses and appeared to be attributable to reduced Spi3 activity in balf. There was no significant difference between the control and copd groups in this respect, indicating that the decrease in Spi3 may be a physiologic phenomenon. The differences observed may be associated with proteolytic damage to or preferential complex formation by Spi3.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To determine whether it was possible to retrieve organisms, by means of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), from cats inoculated with Toxoplasma gondii.

Design

Experimental study.

Animals

27 cats. Sixteen of the 27 were experimentally infected with feline immunodeficiency virus.

Procedure

All cats were inoculated with T gondii tachyzoites. Cats were grouped on the basis of feline immunodeficiency virus status and route (IV or intra-arterial) and number of tachyzoites administered. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed by means of a standard technique. Lavage fluid was evaluated cytologically for tachyzoites.

Results

Clinical signs of toxoplasmosis varied widely among individual cats, but were generally most pronounced in group-1 and -2 cats (n = 5 each) and less pronounced in group-3 (n = 5) cats. Group-4 and -5 cats (n = 6 each) did not have clinical signs of toxoplasmosis. In 14 of the 15 cats in groups 1, 2, and 3, tachyzoites were detected in BAL flu id collected 7 days after inoculation. Tachyzoites were detected 14 days after inoculation in the single cat without tachyzoites 7 days after inoculation. A necropsy was performed on 9 of these cats, and tachyzoites were identified histologically in 4 of the 9. Tachyzoites were not detected in BAL fluid collected 3 days (n = 6) or 7 days (n = 6) after inoculation from the 12 cats in groups 4 and 5. Tachyzoites were not identified histologically in any of these 12 cats.

Clinical Implications

BAL may be useful in the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis. Particularly in cats with signs of pulmonary involvement. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;210:648–650

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Cytologic examination of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (balf), including phenotypic analysis of lymphocytes, was performed on 32 Standardbreds with poor race performance and endoscopic examination findings characteristic of inflammatory airway disease (iad). Nucleated cell counts in balf from iad-affected horses were higher than those in control horses; the cytologic profile of balf in affected horses included mixed inflammation, characterized by mild neutrophilia, lymphocytosis, and monocytosis. Eosinophil and mast cell counts were not higher in the iad-affected group, compared with those in the control group; however, 4 iad-affected horses had marked eosinophilia (24.7 ± 4.8% SEM) in balf. Phenotypic analysis of lymphocytes in balf obtained from IAD-affected horses revealed a low proportion of CD4-positive cells and B cells, compared with those in the control group; these findings may have been representative of a greater proportion of non-B, non-T cells (null cells) in horses with iad. The cytologic profile of balf obtained from horses with iad differed from that in horses affected with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, suggesting that the pathogenesis of inflammation in horses with iad may differ from that of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed through an endotracheal tube in 34 specific-pathogen-free cats to determine expected values for bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cytologic analysis, using this method of collection. Saline solution for lavage was instilled in 3 separate aliquots at a volume of 5 ml/kg of body weight each. Analysis of sequential aliquots was performed to investigate the differences in cell counts among the 3 fractions. The effect of combining aliquots, including or omitting the first fraction, was evaluated to determine whether all aliquots could be combined for analysis without substantially affecting results.

The total number of nucleated cells retrieved from each cat ranged from 0.9 to 31.1 × 106. Most of these cells were macrophages (78 ± 15%, mean ± sd) and eosinophils (16 ± 14%). The first aliquot had the greatest number of epithelial cells, and the lowest total nucleated cell count and relative and absolute eosinophil counts. Differences among aliquots also were identified for relative and absolute macrophage counts, relative and absolute neutrophil counts, and absolute lymphocyte count. Statistically significant differences were found for many of the cell counts when values from the combination of the second and third aliquots were compared with values from the combination of all 3 aliquots. Magnitude of the differences was small, and these differences were not believed to be of practical consequence.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research