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Abstract

Objective—To compare plasma and synovial fluid endothelin-1 (ET-1) and nitric oxide (NO) concentrations in clinically normal horses and horses with joint disease.

Animals—36 horses with joint disease, and 15 horses without joint disease.

Procedure—Horses with joint disease were assigned to 1 of the 3 groups (ie, synovitis, degenerative joint disease [DJD], or joint sepsis groups) on the basis of findings on clinical and radiographic examination and synovial fluid analysis. Endothelin-1 and NO concentrations were measured in plasma from blood samples, collected from the jugular vein and ipsilateral cephalic or saphenous vein of the limb with an affected or unaffected joint, as well as in synovial fluid samples obtained via arthrocentesis from the involved joint.

Results—Plasma ET-1 concentrations between affected and unaffected groups were not significantly different. Median concentration and concentration range of ET-1 in synovial fluid obtained from the joint sepsis group (35.830 pg/mL, 7.926 to 86.614 pg/mL; n = 7) were significantly greater than values from the synovitis (17.531 pg/mL, 0.01 to 46.908 pg/mL; 18), DJD (22.858 pg/mL, 0.01 to 49.990 pg/mL; 10), and unaffected (10.547 pg/mL, 0.01 to 35.927 pg/mL; 10) groups. Plasma and synovial fluid NO concentrations between affected and unaffected groups were not significantly different.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Endothelin-1 is locally synthesized in the joints of horses with various types of joint disease. Synovial fluid concentrations of ET-1 varied among horses with joint disease, with concentrations significantly higher in the synovial fluid of horses with joint sepsis. These results indicate that ET-1 may play a role in the pathophysiologic mechanism of joint disease in horses. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1648–1654)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To establish reference range values for synovial fluid from clinically normal New World camelids.

Animals—15 llamas and 15 alpacas.

Procedure—Llamas and alpacas were anesthetized with an IM injection of a xylazine hydrochloride, butorphanol tartrate, and ketamine hydrochloride combination. Synovial fluid (1 to 2 ml) was obtained by aseptic arthrocentesis from the radiocarpal and tarsocrural joints. Synovial fluid evaluation included determination of total nucleated cell count (NCC), absolute number and percentage of polymorphonuclear (PMN) and mononuclear leukocytes, total protein, and specific gravity.

Results—Synovial fluid evaluation revealed a total NCC of 100 to 1,400 cells/μl (mean ± SD, 394.8 ± 356.2 cells/μl; 95% confidence interval [CI], 295.2 to 494.6 cells/μl). Mononuclear leukocytes were the predominant cell type with lymphocytes, composing 50 to 90% (mean, 75.6 ± 17.2%; 95% CI, 70.8 to 80.4%) of the mononuclear leukocytes. Approximately 0 to 12% (mean, 1.3 ± 2.9%; 95% CI, 0.49 to 2.11%) of the cells were PMN leukocytes. Total protein concentrations ranged from 2.0 to 3.8 g/dl (mean, 2.54 ± 0.29 g/dl; 95% CI, 2.46 to 2.62 g/dl); the specific gravity ranged between 1.010 and 1.026 (mean, 1.017 ± 0.003; 95% CI, 1.016 to 1.018).

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—In llamas and alpacas, significant differences do not exist between species or between limbs (left vs right) or joints (radiocarpal vs tarsocrural) for synovial fluid values. Total NCC and absolute number and percentage of PMN and mononuclear leukocyte are similar to those of other ruminants and horses. However, synovial fluid total protein concentrations in New World camelids are high, compared with other domestic species. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:576–578)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Medical records of 23 dogs with unilateral and 3 dogs with bilateral chronic bicipital tenosynovitis were reviewed. Mean age of affected dogs was 4.6 years (SD, 2.0 years), and mean body weight was 32.6 kg (SD, 14.5 kg). Neither a breed nor a gender predilection was detected. All dogs had a history of intermittent or progressive weight-bearing lameness that became worse after exercise. Mean duration of lameness prior to medical or surgical treatment was 6.5 months (range, 0.25 to 24 months), in all dogs, signs of pain were evident during palpation of the biceps tendon within the intertubercular groove. Radiography revealed sclerosis or osteophytosis of the intertubercular groove in all 29 shoulder joints. Mild degenerative joint disease was evident rudiographicully in 17. Arthrography was performed in 12 joints, and in 11 there were irregularities of or filling defects along the biceps tendon. Arthrocentesis was performed on 17 joints; 14 synovial fluid samples had cytologic abnormalities consistent with degenerative joint disease.

Medical treatment, consisting of injection of methylprcdnisolone acetate into the biceps tendon and its synovial sheath, was attempted in 21 of the 29 affected shoulder joints. Surgery, which consisted of tenodesis of the biceps tendon, was attempted in 14 joints; S of these had not been treated medically; the remaining 6 had poor results following medical treatment.

Gross and histologic findings consistent with chrome bicipital tenosynovitis were observed in all 14 joints in which surgery was performed. Seventeen of the medically treated shoulders were available for clinical evaluation, and results were excellent or good in 7. Twelve of the surgically treated shoulders were available for clinical re-evaluation, and results were excellent or good in all 12 (mean duration of follow-up, 5.7 months; range, 2 to 13 months). Owners of all dogs were contacted by telephone. Owners reported that results were excellent or good in 1.0 of the 21 medically treated shoulder joints, and in ail 14 of the, surgically treated shoulder joints (mean duration of follow-up, 30.1 months; range, 4 to 82 months).

Complications developed in 3 of the 4 dogs in which an osteotomy of the greater tubercle had been performed (implant migration, 2 dogs; delayed union, 1 dog). A seroma developed in 1 of the 10 dogs in which tenodesis was performed by laterally transposing the biceps tendon through a hole in the greater tubercle. Complications related to medical treatment were not detected.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

In each of 4 horses, sterile synovitis was induced by intra-articular injection of 3 μg of Escherichia coli endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) into one antebrachiocarpal joint; an equal volume (2 ml) of phosphate-buffered saline solution (PBSS) was injected into the opposite, control carpus. Blood and 1.5 ml of synovial fluid were obtained at postinjection hours (pih) 0, 2, 4, 8, 12, 18, 42, 66, and 144. Synovial fluid sample collection was accomplished by use of an indwelling, intra-articular catheter through pih 12, and by arthrocentesis subsequently. Joint fluid samples were analyzed for cell counts, protein concentration, cytologic variables, and tumor necrosis factor (tnf), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) values. Tumor necrosis factor and 1L-6 activities and WBC count were also measured in blood. To monitor local inflammation, skin temperature of each carpus was imaged, using a thermographic scanner prior to each sample collection time.

Horses had minimal systemic effects. Mean (± SEM) rectal temperature increased significantly to 39 02 ± 0.15 C only at pih 18 after intra-articular injection of LPS. One horse had signs of mild depression from pih 7 to 18, but its vital signs did not change appreciably. Each horse had mild signs of discomfort in the LPS-injected limb from pih 1 to 3 until pih 8 to 10. Mean peak surface temperature of the LPS-injected carpi was significantly higher than that of control carpi from pih 8 to 144 (P < 0.05).

Mean synovial fluid WBC count in the LPS-injected and control carpi increased after injection and peaked by pih 8 (193,125 ± 8,528 cells/μl, LPS-treated; 16,425 ± 8,336 cells/μl, controls). Mean values for LPS-treated (principal) joints were significantly greater than values for control joints from pih 2 until after pih 66 (P < 0.05). Mean synovial fluid protein concentration increased in the principal and control joints, with values for the principal joints remaining significantly greater than values for control joints from pih 4 to 144 (P < 0.05). Mean TNF activity in synovial fluid was maximal at pih 2 (10,573 ± 5,924 U/ml). Interleukin-6 activity increased more gradually and peaked at pih 8 (1.78 ± 0.71 × 106 U/ml). Tumor necrosis factor activity did not increase above the minimal detectable value of 6 U/ml in the control joints. Mean PGE2 concentration in the principal joints peaked by pih 2 (3.6 ± 0.37 ng/ml) and remained significantly (P < 0.05) greater than the value for control joints from pih 2 through 66. These results indicate that a humane model of synovitis was created by intra-articular injection of LPS and can be used to establish the basic responses of synovial TNF, IL-6, and PGE2 in horses with early inflammatory joint disease.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Six horses received intra-articular injections of a mixture of 1 μg of endotoxin/5 mg of equine tumor necrosis factor (eqTNF) monoclonal antibody in 1 antebrachiocarpal joint and an equal volume (2 ml) of 1 μg of endotoxin/5 mg of control antibody in the opposite joint. Synovial fluid sample collection (1 ml) was accomplished by use of an indwelling, intra-articular catheter at postinjection hours (pih) 0, 1, 1.5, 2, 5, and 8, and by arthrocentesis at pih 24. Joint fluid samples were analyzed for nucleated cell count, protein concentration, and tnf, interleukin 6 (il-6), il-1, and il-1-inhibitory activities. To monitor local inflammation, each carpus was graded semiquantitatively for swelling prior to each sample collection.

Tumor necrosis factor, il-1, or il-1-inhibitory activity was not detected in any synovial fluid sample collected before endotoxin/antibody was administered. However, low il-6 activity (< 100 U/ml) was found in 2 of 12 preinjection samples. In joints injected with endotoxin/control antibody mixture, maximal mean ± sem activities for tnf (1,019 ± 310 U/ml), il-1 (173 ± 102 U/ml), and il-6 (10.8 ± 3.1 × 104 U/ml) were observed at pih 2, 5, and 8, respectively. Tumor necrosis factor and il-1 activities returned to baseline values by pih 8 and 24, respectively; however, il-6 activity remained high. Interleukin 1-inhibitory activity (27.4 ± 2.25 IU/ml) was detected in all pih-24 samples from control joints, but was not detected at any other time in control joints (limit of detection, 20 IU/ml).

Tumor necrosis factor activity was not detected in any synovial fluid sample from joints treated with endotoxin/eqTNF antibody. In contrast, endotoxin-induced mean synovial il-1 and il-6 activities were not reduced significantly by eqTNF antibody. Mean il-1-inhibitory activity (pih 24) was higher in eqTNF antibody-treated joints (41.0 ± 7.7 IU/ml) than in control joints, but the difference was not significant. Mean wbc count and protein concentration in control and treated joints were maximal at pih 8. The curves for mean values of wbc count and total protein concentration were not significantly different in treated versus control joints. Swelling in each treated joint was either less than or the same as that in the opposite control joint at every time in the initial 8 pih. There was significant (P = 0.043) difference between treated and control joints at pih 5 and 8. These results describe a profile of synovial fluid tnf, il-1, il-6 bioactivities, and il-1-inhibitory activity during the initial 24 hours of synovitis induced by intra-articular administration of endotoxin in horses. Our eqTNF monoclonal antibody was effective in neutralizing tnf activity in synovial fluid when administered intra-articularly with endotoxin in horses. The induction of il-1, il-1-inhibitory activity, il-6, wbc, and total protein concentration responses are largely independent of tnf activity in synovial fluid of horses receiving endotoxin intra-articularly.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

dogs or cats. See PAGE 251 ORIGINAL STUDY Dorsal approaches for arthrocentesis of the distal interphalangeal joint in horses Although various techniques for arthrocentesis of the distal interphalangeal joint in horses have been

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

) was also mildly swollen and edematous. Synovial fluid acquired by arthrocentesis of the distal interphalangeal joint was slightly cloudy and had a low viscosity. Cytologic examination of synovial fluid revealed a nucleated cell count of 4.4 × 10 9

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

of the underlying pathophysiology of this condition. In previous studies, 12,13 we examined changes in synovial fluid that occur with repeated arthrocentesis and joint lavage in healthy calves and in calves with experimentally induced septic

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

likely differential diagnosis was neoplasia with a secondary pathological fracture. Another differential diagnosis, but less likely, was osteomyelitis. Treatment and Outcome Aseptic arthrocentesis of the right shoulder joint was performed, and

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

and right mandibular lymph nodes were submitted for cytologic examination. Synovial fluid samples obtained during arthrocentesis of the left antebrachiocarpal joint were submitted for cytologic examination, fluid analysis, and bacterial culture

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association