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shapes of the elimination phases in time versus plasma concentration curves were similar after each treatment, suggesting that clearance of carprofen remained unchanged. Activated charcoal has not been reported to affect clearance of other NSAIDs. 23

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

–9 Briefly, insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 bind to their respective receptors, which activates Akt through the activation of several intermediate signaling proteins. 9–12 Akt is activated when the Thr 308 and Ser 473 sites are both phosphorylated

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Interruption of RAAS activation is an important goal in the pharmacological treatment of congestive heart failure. Hypotension, decreased cardiac output, sympathetic stimulation, and low blood sodium concentrations all stimulate the RAAS

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

degranulation caused by platelet activation. Of these cell mediators, PDGF and TGF-β 1 are present in the highest concentrations and are the mediators most commonly measured in studies. 9 Llamas and alpacas have many pathological conditions for which they

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

directly regulated by TSH that is released by the pituitary gland. The interaction of TSH with its receptor on the surface of thyroid cells results in activation of receptor-coupled heterotrimeric G proteins that control cAMP concentrations in the thyroid

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

-induced neuronal death remains unknown, and an appropriate treatment for prevention of seizure-induced neuronal death has not been identified. Seizures can induce angiogenesis and microglial activation, which are believed to be related to neuronal death. 10

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

activated in response to low cellular ATP concentrations 16 by at least 2 upstream kinases: an upstream regulatory serine-threonine kinase (the product of the STK11 gene known as LKB1 17 ) and by a Ca 2+ -calmodulin–dependent kinase kinase. 18 In turn

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To determine the potential usefulness of tests for detection of platelet activation and platelet-leukocyte aggregates in horses.

Samples

Blood from 3 healthy Thoroughbreds.

Procedures

Microscopic and flow cytometric assays were used to evaluate spontaneous platelet aggregation, platelet activation, and platelet-leukocyte aggregates. Platelet activation was detected by evaluation of binding of anti-human fibrinogen to unactivated and ADP-, thrombin-, thrombin agonist receptor peptide-, and platelet activating factor-activated platelets. Platelet-leukocyte aggregates were evaluated microscopically and by flow cytometric determination of leukocyte fluorescence that resulted from binding of fluorescently labeled platelets to leukocytes.

Results

Equine platelets readily aggregated spontaneously when blood was stirred at low, medium, and high speeds. Compared with unactivated platelets, activated platelets had a marked increase in the percentage of cells with increased fluorescence intensity and in mean fluorescence intensity. Unactivated platelets formed aggregates with neutrophils and monocytes, but not with lymphocytes. Activation of platelets resulted in a calcium-dependent increase in platelet-leukocyte aggregates.

Conclusions

Flow cytometric techniques can be used to detect in vitro platelet activation and platelet-leukocyte aggregates in horses.

Clinical Relevance

Flow cytometric techniques may be useful for detection of prothrombotic disorders in horses. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:823–827)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

through alterations in the intracellular concentrations of cAMP and cGMP. 2 This can be brought about by activation of adenylyl or guanylyl cyclase or by an alteration in the activity of PDE, which breaks down these cyclic nucleotides. Phosphodiesterases

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

activation in these vessels and whether PKC contributes differentially to agonist-induced constriction in laminar veins and arteries. Protein kinase C was among the first protein kinases to be identified. 12 It has been found to be a key player in a

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research