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,11,12,13 Nuclear factor-κβ has been identified as a potential promoter of TNF-α and nitric oxide synthase transcription. 10,11 The NF-κβ pathway may also be activated via the MAPK pathways. Inhibition of both MAPK-p38 and MAPK ERK has been reported to reduce NF

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

is currently used prophylactically in foals. The effects of opsonization on respiratory burst activity in neutrophils and macrophages, the release of TNF-α from macrophages, and the degree of bacterial viability within macrophages were measured. We

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

were seeded in 25-cm 2 flasks and grown to confluence. The culture supernatant was removed and replaced with fresh DMEM. The cells were then incubated with recombinant human TNF-α n (10 ng/mL of DMEM) for 24 hours. All cell culture supernatants were

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research
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necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-17A (IL-17A) have a central role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis by stimulating fibroblast proliferation and increasing collagen accumulation. 10 – 12 , 17 Haptoglobin (Hp) is a positive (upregulated

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

production. Furthermore, addition of anti–IL-10 antibody increases expression of TNF-α and IL-12 mRNA. Neutralization of IL-10 also induces increased interferon-γ expression by peripheral mononuclear blood cells exposed to Mptb purified protein derivative. 9

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

by macrophages. 2 Enhanced release of TNF-α, IL-1, and IL-6 is considered a hallmark of sepsis and hemorrhagic shock. 3 These cytokines promote a multitude of changes, including fever; increased production of acute-phase proteins; hypotension

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

equine asthma have an increase in the expression of the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α and the chemokine IL-8 and a decrease in expression of an anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, compared with expression in horses without respiratory disease

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

necrosis factor-α ( TNFα ), interleukin-6 ( IL-6 ), and housekeeping genes glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase ( GADPH ) and elongation factor 1- ( EF1α ) were designed by 2 of the investigators (AM, SH) using a commercial tool (Integrated Data

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

leukocytes, especially when they are activated, 9–19 and this integrin plays a role in the adherence of leukocytes to the endothelium during inflammation. Different molecules, such as chemokines, fibrinogen, selectins, and cytokines such as TNF-α, can

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

study had the following 3 objectives: (i) to determine whether dogs with CYB5R deficiency have a constitutive proinflammatory phenotype by comparing plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-10 (IL-10), and serum

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research