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Abstract

Objective

To investigate the susceptibility of polarized epithelioid human rectal tumor (HRT-18G) cells to bovine coronaviruses (BCV) isolated from enteric (EBCV) and respiratory (RBCV) tract infections.

Procedure

Cells of the G clone of HRT-18 were grown to confluent monolayers on permeable supports, and were directionally infected at the apical and basolateral domains with 3 wild-type BCV strains, RBCV-LSU-94LSS-051-2, RBCV-OK-0514-3, and EBCV-LY138-2, and 1 cell culture-adapted strain, EBCV-L9-80. Sequential cytopathic changes were microscopically monitored. Medium samples for titration of hemagglutinins and viral infectivity were collected directionally from both domains of the infected cell cultures at various intervals.

Results

Polarized epithelioid HRT-18G cells from apical domains had maximal susceptibility to infection with the EBCV and RBCV strains, and those from basolateral surfaces had minimal susceptibility. Titers of hemagglutinins and infective progeny BCV reached 1,280 hemagglutinin units and 4.2 × 108 plaque-forming units/ml for apical samples, but were minimal for basolateral samples. Asymmetric virus release occurred through the apical surfaces of the HRT-18G cells by 12 hours after infection when cell fusion as a sign of cytopathic changes began. When cells were infected basolaterally, progeny virions released from apical surfaces reinfected the target cells from the apical domains and induced cytopathic changes were delayed about 12 hours, compared with changes detectable in apically exposed cultures.

Conclusions

EBCV and RBCV, isolated from cattle, had marked tropism for polarized epithelioid HRT-18G cells. Entry of BCV into the polarized HRT-18G cells was effected maximally through the apical domains and minimally through the basolateral domains. Release of progeny BCV occurred preferentially from the apical domains. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:1120–1124)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To investigate the antigenic diversity of lipo-oligosaccharides of Haemophilus parasuis.

Procedures

Immunoblot assays were done with monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies on whole-cell lysates. Individual colonies of H parasuis strains H 54, H 53, and H 128 were tested for reactivity with lipo-oligosaccharide-specific monoclonal antibodies after a single passage on chocolate agar, and colonies of strain H 54 were analyzed after 10 passages. Colony blot tests were used to screen H parasuis strains for spontaneously occurring antigenic variation in their lipo-oligosaccharides.

Results

Eight H parasuis strains were separated into 4 lipo-oligosaccharide serovars on the basis of immunoblot reactions with 3 polyclonal rabbit antisera. Nine monoclonal antibodies against lipo-oligosaccharides of a lipo-oligosaccharide-serovar I strain reacted with all tested serovar I strains but failed to react with other H parasuis strains.

Conclusions

Variations in the antigenic reactivity after 1 or 10 passages on chocolate agar were not observed. The serovar I lipo-oligosaccharide strains included virulent as well as avirulent H parasuis strains, indicating that these epitopes do not correlate directly with virulence properties of H parasuis. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:63-67)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

The nucleotide sequence of a chromosomally encoded antigen-expressing gene of Borrelia coriaceae was determined and used as a target for the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Two primer sets were designed specifying the amplification of 269- and 701-bp dna fragments. Primer set I, producing the short amplicon, was tenfold more sensitive than primer set II. As little as 10 fg of purified B coriaceae dna could consistently be detected. The pcr assays, containing controlled numbers of whole spirochetes, allowed detectable amplification of 2 to 10 organisms. An internal, nonradioactively labeled gene-specific probe verified specificity of the pcr amplicons. Neither primer set cross-reacted with other related spirochetes. This pcr assay was adapted and found suitable for identification of B coriaceae in biological samples, such as blood and thymus. Evidence for presence of B coriaceae in biological samples was not found in tissue samples obtained from experimentally infected cows and their fetuses. These data failed to establish a definite association between B coriaceae and epizootic bovine abortion.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

The core protein and the transmembrane protein, encoded for the structural genes gag and env, respectively, of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus were amplified by use of polymerase chain reaction, cloned into a pGEX-2T vector, and expressed in Escherichia coli as fusion proteins with the glutathione S-transferase at their C-terminus. The recombinant proteins were purified and evaluated by use of an elisa. Sera from 269 goats were tested, and the results were compared with those obtained by use of immunoblot analysis. When results from both recombinant elisa (r-elisa) were compared, it appeared that the transmembrane glycoprotein was more immunoreactive than the core protein, because it was recognized by a higher percentage of sera from infected goats. When results of the 2 elisa (p28 r-elisa and p40 r-elisa) were combined in parallel, they were comparable to those of the immunoblot test, with sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 98.3%. It was also found that use of both r-elisa makes it possible to compare the variable immunoreactivity against gag and env viral antigens, which may be correlated with the disease state. The r-elisa, using core and transmembrane proteins, appears to be highly sensitive and specific for detection of antibodies against caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

An antigen extract of Dictyocaulus viviparus was analyzed by use of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and the antigen-recognition patterns of serum antibody from cattle not infected, cattle infected with D viviparus, and cattle with unknown history of D viviparus were analyzed by the use of ELISA and western blotting techniques. Cross-reactive antibody-recognition patterns were determined by comparing western blots of D viviparus-positive sera with blots of D viviparus-negative sera obtained from cattle singly infected with Bunostomum phlebotomum, Cooperia oncophora, C punctata, Nematodirus helvetianus, Oesophagostomum radiatum, or Ostertagia ostertagi. Five antigen bands unique to D viviparus were identified, and their frequency of appearance in western blots of sera from verified D viviparus-positive and -negative cattle, and sera from cattle exposed to the parasite, but with unknown D viviparus immune status, were determined. Of the 5 antigens unique to D viviparus, 29- and 19-kd bands had the highest frequencies of reaction (45.9 and 59.0%, respectively) with the test sera. These bands had strong reactivity with sera containing antibodies to D viviparus and did not react with the heterologous sera. We conclude that the 29- and 19-kd antigens may be useful for developing an improved serodiagnostic test for D viviparus infections in cattle.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Six monoclonal antibodies (mab) to virulent Mycobacterium bovis ATCC 19210 were produced, using a suspension of heat-inactivated whole cells. Immunoglobulin isotype for mab VMB6, VMB73, and VMB93 was IgG1, and for VMB31, VMB99, and VMB119, it was IgG2a. Monoclonal antibodies were examined for cross-reactivity to M tuberculosis, M kansasii, M fortuitum, M paratuberculosis, M avium serovars 1, 2, 4, 8, and 10, M chelonei, M phlei, M scrofulaceum, M smegmatis, Nocardia asteroides, and Rhodococcus equi. Monoclonal antibodies could be grouped on the basis of binding activity by elisa and immunoblot analysis, in which mab VMB6, VMB31, and VMB119 had binding activity to M bovis; mab VMB93 and VMB99 detected M bovis and M tuberculosis antigens, and mab VMB73 reacted with other mycobacterial species, as well as with N asteroides and R equi. Apparent molecular mass of antigens was 30 to 25 kilodaltons (kD) for VMB6, VMB31, and VMB119 and 63 kD for VMB93 and VMB99, and ranged from > 200 to 31 kD for VMB73, as estimated by immunoblot analysis. Monoclonal antibody binding activity to 18 field isolates of M bovis was evaluated, using elisa. Each of 18 field isolates was detected, using mab VMB6, VMB31, or VMB119; 10 isolates were detected, using mab VMB93/VMB99, and 14 were detected by use of mab VMB73. Use of mab in elisa failed to detect antigens from M bovis strain AN-5.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

A technique for detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv) from circulating blood leukocytes, using the polymerase chain reaction, is described. The published nucleotide sequences of 2 strains of bvdv and that of hog cholera virus were aligned and the information was used to design oligonucleotides coding for 2 regions of amino acid homology. The oligonucleotides were a mixed population including all possible codons for the conserved amino acids. These degenerate oligonucleotides were used in the polymerase chain reaction to detect viral rna in cells infected in vitro, or in circulating blood leukocytes from infected animals. Virus was detected in over 60 samples from diverse isolates. The detection of bvdv by the polymerase chain reaction is a rapid, sensitive, and specific technique, which represents an improvement over existing technology.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Eight strains of Chlamydia psittaci isolated from swine with pneumonia, pleuritis, pericarditis, and enteritis were characterized through analysis of the major outer membrane protein gene ompA by a two-step polymerase chain reaction, by their interactions with cells in culture, and the morphologic features and ultrastructure of intra-cellular inclusions. Amplified chlamydial ompA dna fragments were differentiated by restriction endonuclease digestion. Chlamydial isolates were separated into 2 types on the basis of ompA restriction fragment length polymorphism. Strains of type L71 had finely granular inclusions, whereas those of type 1710S contained pleomorphic reticulate bodies (rb) in the inclusions, which are characteristic of aberrant chlamydial developmental forms. Chlamydial types L71 and 1710S required centrifuge-assisted inoculation for efficient infection of cell cultures. Cultivation in cell culture medium containing cycloheximide increased the numbers of chlamydial inclusions about 1.5-fold. These strains formed few elementary bodies in yolk sac cells of chicken embryos. Ultrastructurally, unique doublet rb were observed, particularly in strains of the ompA type L71. These doublets consisted of 2 rb, bounded by a cytoplasmic membrane, contained within a common cell wall and an extended periplasmic space. Ultrastructural examination of strains of the ompA type 1710S confirmed the aberrant chlamydial developmental forms, but evidence of viral infection of the rb as a cause of these aberrant forms was not found. The strain S45 isolated from intestinal sites of swine was a trachoma restriction fragment length polymorphism type. With the mouse biotype, it represented the second isolate from animals of Chlamydia trachomatis.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Because of the importance of environmental survival of pseudorabies virus to proposals to eradicate the virus from swine in the United States, survival of the virus was studied in various diluents and on combinations of diluents and solid fomites at 25 C. Suspensions of the virus in phosphate-buffered saline and saline G solutions remained infectious for at least 10 days. Infectivity of other virus/diluent suspensions decreased to <10 plaque-forming units/ml in 14 days (swine urine), 7 days (well water), 4 days (swine saliva), 2 days (lagoon water and swine nasal washings), and 1 day (swine pit effluent, chlorinated water, and bile). Suspensions of pseudorabies virus in saline G solution and on the solid fomites, whole corn, and steel remained infectious for at least 7 days. Infectivity of other virus/diluent/fomite combinations decreased to <10 plaque-forming units/ml in 7 days. The role of the fomites as vehicles for transmission of infection is discussed.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association