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Abstract

Objective

To determine the effects of the takushya portion of choreito, a traditional Chinese treatment for urolithiasis, on urine and struvite crystal variables in cats fed diets containing takushya.

Sample Population

6 male and 6 female adult cats, all considered to be clinically normal on the basis of physical examination findings, results of CBC, serum biochemical analyses, urinalyses, and urine cultures; and freedom from urolithiasis on the basis of urethrocystoscopic (females) or urethrocystographic (males) findings.

Procedure

Cats were fed a commercial canned diet supplemented with 0.1-mg of takushya/kg of body weight, or with 0.5 mg of choreito/kg. Diets were fed, using a Latin-square design, to 3 groups of 4 cats (2 male, 2 female) each for 2 weeks, followed by blood and 24-hour urine sample collections.

Results

Consumption of takushya, which comprises 20% by weight of choreito, was not associated with adverse effects in cats at the amounts provided during the period of study. Moreover, takushya was responsible for most of the effect of choreito consumption on reduction of urine pH, and approximately half its ability to reduce struvite crystal formation in cat urine.

Clinical Relevance

Alternative treatments for struvite urolithiasis in cats may be feasible. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:150–152)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effects of nephrotomy on renal function in clinically normal cats.

Animals—20 specific-pathogen-free, 9- to 11-month old female mixed-breed cats.

Procedure—Serum chemistry analyses, CBC determinations, urinalyses, microbiologic urine cultures, renal ultrasonography, abdominal radiography, and single-kidney and total glomerular filtration rate (GFR) determinations by use of renal scintigraphy and measurements of plasma disappearance of technetium 99m-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid were performed before surgery and at 3, 12, 26, 52, and 78 weeks after surgery in 10 cats that underwent unilateral nephrotomy and in 10 control cats that underwent a sham surgical procedure.

Results—Two cats (1 from each group) did not complete the study, and their data were eliminated from analyses. Unilateral nephrotomy resulted in a 10% to 20% reduction in mean single-kidney GFR, compared with that of nephrotomy contralateral control kidneys. However, mean total GFR in nephrotomy-group cats was not significantly different from that of shamgroup cats. Over the 78 weeks of study, mean total GFR declined 34% and 40% in nephrotomy- and sham-group cats, respectively. Adverse events associated with nephrotomy included persistent microscopic hematuria, renal pelvis hyperechogenicity with distant shadowing on ultrasonographic evaluation, dilatation of renal pelves, and hydronephrosis.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Nephrotomy in normal functioning feline kidneys results in a modest relative reduction in renal function, compared with contralateral kidney controls, but has minimal effect on total GFR when compared with sham-operated control cats. However, any detrimental effects of nephrotomy may be magnified in cats with diseased kidneys, which may have little or no capacity for repair or compensation. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1400–1407)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To investigate the effect of choreito consumption (500 mg/kg of body weight/d) on struvite crystal formation and signs of lower urinary tract disease (LUTD) in cats consuming a commercial canned diet with 0.5% added inorganic magnesium.

Sample Population

6 male and 6 female adult cats, all considered to be clinically normal on the basis of physical examination findings; results of CBC, serum biochemical analyses, urinalyses, and urine cultures; and freedom from urolithiasis on the basis of urethrocystoscopic (females) or urethrocystographic (males) findings.

Procedure

Diets were fed for 12 weeks, or until appearance of signs of LUTD, including dysuria, hematuria, urine pH > 7.0, and severe struvite crystalluria. Presence of at least 2 of these signs was required for removal from study. Urine specimens were examined for electrolytes, struvite crystal content, and hematuria.

Results

Results for urine variables were compared between groups at 4 weeks, because of reduction in cat numbers attributable to removal from study. Struvite crystal content of 24-hour urine specimens was significantly lower for cats fed the choreito-containing diet. Moreover, frequency and severity of hematuria were significantly decreased in cats fed the choreito-containing diet. Correlation between hematuria and struvite crystal content was not observed in either group. Additionally, all 6 cats fed the diet without choreito had been removed from study by day 58 because of signs of LUTD. Of the 6 cats fed the choreito-containing diet, 2 completed the 12-week study.

Clinical Relevance

Choreito may be beneficial for relief of some signs of struvite-associated LUTD disease in cats. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:146–149)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

The clinicopathologic manifestations of bovid herpesvirus-4 (bhv-4; FCAHV strain)-induced infection of the lower portion of the urinary tract were characterized in 12 adult neutered male and 6 female specific-pathogen-free cats, and were compared with those in 12 neutered male control cats. Six neutered male and 6 female cats were given immunosuppressive doses of methylprednisolone acetate prior to inoculation of their urinary bladders with bhv-4. Six neutered male control cats were given immunosuppressive doses of methylprednisolone acetate prior to inoculation of their urinary bladders with uninfected tissue culture control inoculum. Six additional neutered male control cats were exposed only to uninfected tissue culture control inoculum. All cats were observed for 90 days following inoculation. Dysuria and gross hematuria were observed in only 1 bhv-4-exposed cat. Radiographic abnormalities of the lower portion of the urinary tract were not observed. Microscopic hematuria, crystalluria, and lipiduria were identified with similar frequency in bhv-4-exposed and control cats. Results of urine culturing for bacteria, mycoplasma, ureaplasma, and viruses were negative. Viruses were not isolated from blood leukocytes collected from exposed or control cats. Three to 6 weeks after inoculation, high concentrations of bhv-4 serum antibodies were detected in all exposed cats by an indirect fluorescent antibody test.

Light microscopic examination of the urinary tract revealed multifocal lymphoid cystitis in 2 bhv-4-exposed cats. Except for suppurative bronchitis in 1 bhv-4-exposed cat given glucocorticoids, morphologic differences in urinary and extraurinary tissues were not observed. In urinary bladder tissue collected 90 days after inoculation, bhv-4 was reisolated from urinary bladder explants of all but 1 exposed cat. Virus was also isolated from a kidney explant of 1 exposed male cat, and spleen cell cocultures of 1 exposed female cat given glucocorticoids.

Bovid herpesvirus-4 (FCAHV strain) caused persistent urinary tract infections in male and female specific-pathogen-free cats. Detection of occult bhv-4 infection required isolation of virus from tissues by explantation, or demonstration of specific bhv-4 antibodies by immunofluorescent techniques. Administration of glucocorticoids prior to inoculation did not enhance morbidity associated with bhv-4 urinary tract infection. Further investigations are needed to determine the pathogenic role of bhv-4 in noninduced feline lower urinary tract disease.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

dogs were higher than those of control dogs. See page 912 Clinical performance of a commercial point-of-care urine culture system for identification of bacteriuria in dogs Point-of-care urine culture kits have been developed to address the

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Animal Medical Center was searched for canine urocystolith cases between January 1, 2012, and July 31, 2020. Inclusion criteria were the 4 preoperative parameters (signalment, urine culture, urinalysis, and lateral abdominal radiograph) documented in the

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

crystals, and a pH of 6.5. Urine culture and susceptibility of a sample collected by cystocentesis isolated susceptible Escherichia coli . Amoxicillin–clavulanate potassium (20 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h) was prescribed for 21 days. Two weeks later, an abdominal

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

clavulanate while awaiting the urine culture and antimicrobial sensitivity results. Additional medication doses and duration were dispensed at the lead clinician’s discretion. Patients were discharged the same day, after recovery from the general anesthetic

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

TS concentration was 4.0 g/dL. This was attributed to subscapular hemorrhage seen around the left kidney. Owners were informed that a blood transfusion might be necessary. An aerobic urine culture was obtained by cystocentesis and the ferret was

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

considered due to the recent prolonged indwelling catheter placement. A sterile urine sample was obtained via cystocentesis and submitted for urine culture and sensitivity, which showed growth of Leclercia adecarboxylata susceptible to amoxicillin

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association