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History A 6-year-old 27-kg entire male Husky was presented with a 5-week history of polydipsia and polyuria, with a mass in the ventral aspect of the right-hand side of the neck, caudal to the temporomandibular joint, suspected to be an

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

the right temporomandibular joint area. A swelling was detected beginning at the base of the right ear and extending over the region of this joint ( Figure 1 ). The patient was sedated with detomidine (0.01 mg/kg [0.005 mg/lb]) and butorphanol (0

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To describe the anatomic features of the pituitary gland region in horses via computed tomography (CT) and determine the accuracy of CT for estimating normal equine pituitary gland dimensions.

Animals—25 adult horses with no clinical signs of pituitary disease.

Procedure—Transverse CT images and gross transverse tissue sections were compared in 2 horses. Contrast-enhanced CT of the pituitary gland region was performed postmortem in 23 horses with 4 slice thickness and interval settings (10-mm contiguous or overlapping slices and 4-mm contiguous or overlapping slices). Gross and CT estimates of pituitary gland dimensions were compared via ANOVA. Accuracy of CT estimates was calculated with gross pituitary gland measurements as the known value.

Results—Pituitary glands were located between the temporomandibular joints and had contrast enhancement. Mean gross dimensions were length, 2.11 cm; width, 2.16 cm; height, 0.98 cm; and volume, 2.66 cm3. Gross measurements and CT estimates of pituitary gland length from 10-mm contiguous and overlapping slices did not differ. Gross measurements and CT estimates of pituitary gland width from 4-mm contiguous and overlapping slices did not differ. Estimates of height and volume from all CT techniques differed from gross measurements. Accuracies for CT estimates were length, 88 to 99%; width, 81 to 92%; height, 58 to 71%; and volume, 43 to 55%.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Accuracy of estimates of pituitary gland dimension in horses varied with CT scanning technique; via CT, estimates of length and width of glands were more accurate than estimates of height or volume. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:1387–1394)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

temperature within the respective reference ranges, with no abnormalities on cranial nerve evaluation. Findings on visual and physical examination of the head and neck were unremarkable, except that palpation of the left temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and left

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

the page → Radiographic Findings and Interpretation A smooth, evenly mineralized, spherical structure (diameter, approx 5 mm) is present just rostral to the right temporomandibular joint lateral to the vertical ramus of the mandible ( Figure 2

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

jaw. Moderate swelling was noticed over the right masseter muscles and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) region. There was marked periorbital swelling, exophthalmia, and severe corneal edema of the right eye. Pupillary light reflex and the dazzle and

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

the skull was performed ( Figure 1 ). Figure 1— Soft tissue (A) and bone (B) window transverse CT images (slice thickness, 2 mm) of the skull at the level of the temporomandibular joints of a 4-year-old female Toy Poodle evaluated because of

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

alone. See page 1292 Myxomatous neoplasia of the temporomandibular joint in two dogs A 15-year-old dog and an 11-year-old dog were examined because of unilateral exophthalmus, third eyelid protrusion, and periorbital swelling. In both dogs

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

than the right (2.5 × 2.9 cm). No clear involvement of the ramus, body, or angular processes of the mandibles is appreciable; however, the cranial margins of the mineral opaque lesions appear to encroach on the temporomandibular joints, overlapping the

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

–3,9,13 Dental and skeletal malocclusion may contribute to levering forces that can add to increased laxity of the mandibular symphysis. 1,10 Temporomandibular joint dysplasia in dogs occurs more frequently in chondrodystrophic and brachycephalic breeds

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association