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The immune system of birds consists of primary and secondary organs. Primary immune organs include the thymus and bursa of Fabricius, and secondary immune organs include the spleen, Harder's gland, bone marrow, and lymphoid tissue such as mucosa

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Interpretation Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) showed free fluid in the abdominal cavity and a cyst-like structure associated with the spleen. Abdominocentesis yielded hemorrhagic fluid with a PCV of 12% and total protein (TP) of 5.2 g/dL. Baseline bloodwork

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

and secondary immune organs. Primary immune organs include the thymus and bursa of Fabricius, and secondary immune organs include the spleen, Harder's gland, bone marrow, and lymphoid tissue (eg, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue and GALT). Mucosa

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

suspected to be hemangiosarcoma with or without hemoabdomen, whose owners consented to histologic evaluation of their dog's liver and spleen, were included in the study. Owner consent was obtained prior to ultrasonographic examination and contrast agent

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

. Hepatic parenchyma was of a uniform echotexture with medium echogenicity that was interrupted only by vascular structures. Hepatic lobation was indistinct. The echogenicity of the liver was similar to that of the spleen, testes, and fat bodies. Figure

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

considered best suited for patients with normal to moderately enlarged spleens. 9–11 A study performed by Targarona et al 11 found that 77% of patients with spleens weighing ≤ 3,200 g, as determined by means of 3-D CT volumetry, underwent a successful

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

was performed as previously described to test for the presence of the κ light chain. A positive result was obtained with a band at 25 kDa, confirming Bence-Jones proteinuria. 4 Ultrasonographic examination of the abdomen was performed; the spleen was

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

The thymus is a primary lymphoid organ that provides a specialized microenvironment for T-cell maturation. 1 Mature T cells migrate from the thymus to secondary lymphoid organs such as the spleen, hemal nodes, and lymph nodes, 2 thereby

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

indicated no relationship, and a summed χ 2 value of 3.84 for all cells in a table indicated significance with 1 df . One subgroup included comparative echogenicity among parenchymal organs (liver, spleen, or kidneys), diffuse or patchy hyperechoic or

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

, gastric dilatation-volvulus, acquired or congenital coagulopathies, and benign or malignant processes of the liver, spleen, adrenal glands, kidneys, or prostate. 1–3,6,7 Clinical signs associated with hemoperitoneum can range from vague, nonspecific

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association