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A plethora of medical conditions that affect the respiratory system of camelids and that potentially alter respiratory function have been identified, 1–4 yet functional analysis has rarely been performed in this species. Therefore, there is a

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

there is limited information with respect to interspecies differences; dose-dependent effects; duration of drug efficacy; and potentially fatal drug-related adverse effects, such as respiratory depression. In mammals, μ- and δ-opioid receptor activation

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Introduction In 2014, producer-reported data collected through the National Animal Health Monitoring Service estimated that respiratory disease affected 12% of preweaned dairy heifers and accounted for 24% of deaths within this group. 1

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

severe upper respiratory noise. Thoracic radiographs were taken and revealed no evidence of pulmonary metastasis or bronchopneumonia. Twenty-six days after initial presentation, the dog was re-presented for a CT scan of the head. Physical examination

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

of a manually synchronized radiographic technique following ECG recordings. 15,16 The objective of the study reported here was to determine the effects of the respiratory and cardiac cycles on VHS determined by means of thoracic fluoroscopy in

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Viral respiratory tract infections are one of the leading causes of training loss and are considered an important predisposing contributor to secondary bacterial infections in airways of horses. 1 Common respiratory viruses such as EIV and

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

have values near 0 for this scoring system. After a washout period of 7 days, snakes were administered the other treatment, and the procedures were repeated. Respiratory experiment A complete crossover experiment was conducted to evaluate

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To characterize cytokine messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in intranasally vaccinated calves after bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) challenge.

Animals—Twelve 8- to 12-week-old calves.

Procedures—Calves received modified-live BRSV vaccine (vaccinated) or spent tissue culture medium (mock-vaccinated) intranasally, followed by challenge 30 days later with BRSV, or mock challenge with spent tissue culture medium (mock-challenge controls). Interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) mRNA was measured in lungs, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid cells, pharyngeal tonsils, and tracheobronchial lymph nodes, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) mRNA was measured in lungs and BAL fluid cells by reverse transcriptase-competitive polymerase chain reaction assay.

Results—Resistance to clinical signs of disease was conferred in vaccinated calves. Expression of TNF-α mRNA in lungs and BAL fluid cells was higher in mock-vaccinated calves than control or vaccinated calves. In the lung, IL-4 mRNA expression was higher in vaccinated calves than control or mock-vaccinated calves. In pharyngeal tonsils, expression of mRNA for IL-4 and IFN-γ was higher in mock-vaccinated calves than control calves. In tracheobronchial lymph nodes, IFN-γ mRNA expression was higher in mock-vaccinated calves than vaccinated calves.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although vaccinated calves had decreased clinical signs of disease after BRSV challenge, compared with mock-vaccinated calves, this difference was not related to a T helper type 1 bias, as determined by increased expression of interferon-γ mRNA relative to interleukin-4 mRNA in lungs, BAL fluid cells, or tracheobronchial lymph nodes of vaccinated calves. Pulmonary inflammation was decreased in vaccinated calves as determined by decreased expression of TNF-α mRNA. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:725–733)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Bovine respiratory disease is the most common cause of death for all production classes of cattle and calves in the United States; animal deaths attributable to that disease cost producers > $643 million in 2010. 1 Results of National Animal

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

P ulmonary hypertension (PH) can be categorized as precapillary or postcapillary. The former type may be caused by heartworm disease, congenital shunts, and chronic respiratory disease, whereas the latter type may be caused by left-heart diseases

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research