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brainstem. No other abnormalities of the head, the nasal cavity, the tympanic bullae, or soft tissues of the head were evident via MRI. A sample of CSF was collected from the cerebellomedullary cistern, and analysis revealed high protein concentration (41

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

[102.3°F]), and mild bilateral serous nasal discharge, dry intermittent coughing, and mildly increased lung sounds were present. Except for the neurologic examination findings, the remainder of the physical examination was unremarkable. What is the

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

portion of the vertebral column was affected included ataxia (n = 3), difficulty raising the head (1), weight loss (2), lethargy (1), anorexia (1), nasal discharge (1), and bullous stomatitis (1). 4–8 For those reported cases, treatment of 1 horse was

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

portion of the brainstem Decreased nasal sensation Result of stress or lesion of the trigeminal nerves (ophthalmic or maxillary branch), trigeminal ganglion, or trigeminal tract in the pons and medulla Tetraparesis and ataxia C1-T2 spinal

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

or basidiospores through the nasal cavity and possible direct penetration into the CNS via the cribriform plate. In dogs and cats, infection may be limited to the CNS or may involve other organ systems and tissues. Among dogs, cryptococcosis

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
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fluid was evident in the right frontal sinus and nasal cavity, and it was hyperintense on T2-weighted and T1-weighted pre- and postcontrast images. There was no evidence of turbinate destruction, and the fluid was suspected to be mucus. A CSF sample was

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

collected for histologic and cytologic examinations and bacterial culture. After removal of the mass, the nasal cavity opening from the frontal sinus was packed with bone wax c and gelatin sponges prior to closure. The dog received IV administration of

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

, brain, peripheral nerves, skin, bones, gingival mucosa, and nasal mucosa of dogs and cats. 2,3 Four previous reports 3–6 of hamartomas affecting neurologic function in cats all involved vascular hamartomas of the cerebrum, cerebellum, or cervical or

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

bump into objects, and had normal pupillary light reflexes. The palpebral and retractor bulbi reflex deficits did not result from a trigeminal nerve lesion given the normal jaw tone, masticatory muscle mass, and conscious sensation of the nasal mucosa

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

nerves. The major petrosal nerve extends through the pterygoid bone in the pterygoid canal, exiting near the round foramen to synapse in the pterygopalatine ganglion and from there innervates the lacrimal glands and nasal mucosa ( Figure 3 ) . 4

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association