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mediators (eg, NO and PGE) are produced, which leads to inflammation in the joint. 12–14 Furthermore, anabolic activity of the cells is suppressed, which leads to delayed healing of the resulting cartilage defects. 15,16 Interleukin-1β also has the

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

transcription-6. 15 Interleukin-4 also appears to regulate the transcription factors p38, mitogen-activated protein kinase, and phosphoinositide-3 kinase in neutrophils, as their activity is correlated with an upregulation of mRNA for cell differentiation

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

. Interleukin-1β treatment did not significantly affect GAG content in coculture groups, compared with untreated cultures. However, as expected, IL-1β treatment resulted in a significant loss of matrix GAG in cartilage-only groups (ie, without synoviocytes

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

-X-C chemokine family, the members of which have conserved cysteine motifs at the amino terminal end. Interleukin-8, a potent chemoattractant for neutrophils both in vitro and in vivo, is produced by numerous cells, including alveolar macrophages, monocytes

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

. Interleukin-1 has been used in articular cartilage to simulate OA. 18,19,21 We tested the hypothesis that HA alone or in combination with corticosteroid administration can mitigate cartilage PG catabolism caused by IL-1 administration in equine chondrocytes

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

prototype. 40 Interleukin 17A, the cytokine examined in the study reported here and that we shall refer to as IL-17, is a glycoprotein localized to T cells (CD4+ and CD8+ cells), neutrophils, and eosinophils. 39 Analysis of the data from our study

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

and urine interleukin-1b concentrations, which in turn promote hepatic production of fibrinogen, and localized inflammation of the urinary bladder allows fibrinogen to cross the bladder wall and increase uFIB. 6 Subsequent colonization of the urinary

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

. ABBREVIATIONS COX-2 Cyclooxygenase-2 CPM Counts per minute GAG Glycosaminoglycan IL Interleukin a. Dulbecco modified Eagle medium, Mediatech Inc, Herndon, Va. b. Fetal bovine serum, Gemini Bioproducts, Woodland, Calif. c. L -glutamine, 200mM

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

acetoxymethyl ester COX Cyclooxygenase DN Dietary Biota orientalis –nutraceutical DN sim Simulated digest of the dietary Biota orientalis –nutraceutical EthD-1 Ethidium homodimer-1 GAG Glycosaminoglycan IL Interleukin INDO sim Simulated digest of

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Six nonpregnant, nonlactating Jersey cows, averaging 4 to 6 years old, were used to evaluate the immunomodulatory effects of recombinant bovine interleukin 1β (rBoIL-1β). Cows were given 166 ng of rBoIL-1β/kg of body weight at 8-hour intervals for 96 hours. Persistent leukocytosis was observed within 3 hours of rBoIL-1 treatment, peaking 24 hours after the first IL-1β injection and returning to baseline values within 72 hours after cessation of IL-1β treatment. Injection of cows with rBoIL-1β stimulated lymphocyte blastogenesis and mitochondrial methyl-thiazoltetrazolium cleavage activity in resting cell cultures. Increases in the aforementioned lymphocyte activities were also observed in stimulated blood mononuclear cell cultures during IL-1β administration. Change in IgM production in cell cultures was not observed during IL-1β treatment. Within 24 hours of the first IL-1β injection, IL-1β mRNA transcription in stimulated blood mononuclear cell cultures was markedly increased, suggesting that IL-1β upregulates its own production in mononuclear cells. These data provide evidence that administration of cytokines, such as rBoIL-1β, enhances immune cell function and, therefore, may be useful in alleviating immunosuppression in cattle.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research