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diagnoses were identified, and some diagnoses combined overlapping conditions such as diarrhea, gastritis, and gastroenteritis to better reflect the frequency of infection among the population. Other combined diagnoses included bladder infections and

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

race checkpoint ( Table 2 ). Lesions commonly detected in dogs with race-related deaths included rhabdomyolysis (ie, skeletal muscle degeneration and necrosis; n = 15), enteritis (10), gastritis (10), gastric ulceration (10), aspiration pneumonia (8

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

electrolyte solution b with supplemental KCl c (total K, 20 mEq/L), ranitidine d (2 mg/kg [0.9 mg/lb], IV, q 8 h) to decrease gastric acidity for possible gastritis, furosemide e (2 mg/kg, IV, q 8 h) for pulmonary edema, cefotaxime f (22 mg/kg [10 mg

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Gastroesophageal ulceration is an important disease entity in swine. 1,2 Erosions, ulcers and accompanying gastritis develop in the glandular and nonglandular gastric mucosa in affected pigs with a prevalence ranging from 5% to 100%. 1 Death

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

of those with colitis, duodenitis, enteritis, enterocolitis, enteropathy, enterotyphlitis, gastritis, gastroenteritis, ileitis, jejunitis, typhlitis, or typhlocolitis, alone or in combination, listed in the diagnosis field. When this report was

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

multifocal moderate lymphoplasmacytic and eosinophilic gastritis; severe lymphoplasmacytic and eosinophilic erosive enteritis with villous epithelial attenuation were detected in duodenal biopsy specimens. Histologic examination of colonic biopsy specimens

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective—

To determine the prevalence of hypergastrinemia in cats with naturally developing chronic renal failure (CRF) and the correlation between gastrin concentration in plasma and severity of CRF.

Design—

Cohort study.

Animals—

30 cats with naturally developing CRF and 12 clinically normal control cats.

Procedure—

Gastrin concentrations in plasma were determined by double-antibody radioimmunoassay of blood samples obtained from cats after food was withheld 8 hours. Concentrations were compared, using a nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA.

Results—

18 cats with CRF had high gastrin concentrations (median, 45 pg/ml; range, < 18 to > 1,333 pg/ml), compared with those for control cats (< 18 pg/ml). Prevalence of hypergastrinemia increased with severity of renal insufficiency. Three of 9 cats with mild CRF, 6 of 11 cats with moderate CRF, and 9 of 10 cats with severe CRF had high gastrin concentrations. Gastrin concentrations were significantly different between control cats and cats with CRF, regardless of disease severity.

Clinical Implications—

The potential role of high concentrations of gastrin on gastric hyperacidity, uremic gastritis, bleeding from the gastrointestinal tract, and associated clinical signs of hypergastrinemia (eg, anorexia and vomiting) may justify use of histamine2-receptor antagonists or proton pump inhibitors to suppress gastric acid secretion in cats with CRF that have these clinical signs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;213:826-828)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To determine whether ranitidine bismuth citrate, clarithromycin, or a combination of ranitidine bismuth citrate and clarithromycin would be efficacious in eradication of Helicobacter mustelae infection in ferrets.

Animals

60 seven-month-old ferrets.

Procedure

To determine dosages of clarithromycin and ranitidine bismuth citrate that would suppress growth of, but not eradicate infection with, H mustelae, ferrets (n = 6/group) were treated PO with clarithromycin or ranitidine bismuth citrate at various dosages. Efficacy of treatment was then determined by treating ferrets with clarithromycin alone, ranitidine bismuth citrate alone, or clarithromycin and ranitidine bismuth citrate. Gastric biopsy specimens were obtained before, during, and at various times after treatment and submitted for quantitative bacterial culture and histologic evaluation. Minimum concentrations of clarithromycin that inhibited 90% of the growth of isolates obtained before and after treatment were determined.

Results

Dosages of clarithromycin and ranitidine bismuth citrate that suppressed growth of H mustelae were 12.5 and 24 mg/kg of body weight, PO, every 8 hours, respectively. Infection was not eradicated in ferrets treated with ranitidine bismuth citrate alone but was eradicated in all 6 ferrets treated with clarithromycin and ranitidine bismuth citrate and in 4 of 6 treated with clarithromycin alone. A decrease in susceptibility to clarithromycin was detected for H mustelae isolates obtained after treatment. Mild or moderate antral gastritis was observed even in ferrets from which infection was eradicated.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

A combination of ranitidine bismuth citrate and clarithromycin was efficacious in eradicating H mustelae infection from ferrets. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:1280–1286)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Four groups of 18 beef calves each were used to evaluate effects of different treatments on parasite control and weight gains. The investigation extended from November 1986 (weaning) to October 1987. Group-1 calves were treated with ivermectin (200 μg/kg of body weight, SC) at approximately 6-week intervals for a total of 8 treatments; group-2 calves were given the same dosage of ivermectin by the same route of administration as group-1 calves in November, March, and July; group-3 calves were given fenbendazole paste (5 mg/kg, po) at the same times as group-2 calves; and group-4 calves served as untreated controls with provision for ivermectin salvage treatment. All groups grazed on individual pairs of larval-contaminated, 1.6-ha pastures. Highest (P < 0.05) initial worm counts in fall tracer calves were found in group 3 (Ostertagia ostertagi and Trichostrongylus axei adults) and group 4 (O ostertagi and Haemonchus adults). Fecal egg counts of group-1 calves were low throughout the experiment and pasture larval counts remained negligible after July. Egg counts and larval counts of other groups remained higher into summer. Worm counts, including O ostertagi inhibited early fourth-stage larvae (el 4), were highest (P < 0.05) in groups-3 and -4 spring tracer calves; numbers of O ostertagi el 4 were similarly high in groups 2, 3, and 4; and T axei counts were highest (P < 0.05) in groups-3 and -4 yearlings slaughtered in spring. Liveweights of group-1 calves were greater (P < 0.05) than in other groups from March 2 to October, and by July 2, group-2 calves had a liveweight advantage over group-4 calves. Group- 3 calves had the lowest rate of gain from March to July and mean liveweight of the group was less (P < 0.05) than in all other groups from April to October. Only minimal worm numbers were recovered from groups-1 or -2 calves in October. Large numbers of O ostertagi and T axei were recovered from group-4 calves and O ostertagi from group-3 calves. A few calves in groups 3 and 4, but particularly in group 4, were affected by type-II disease (chronic to acute gastritis caused by maturation and emergence of previously inhibited larvae) from August to October. Final mean liveweights in descending order were 365 kg in group 1, 328 kg in group 2, 316 kg in group and 281 kg in group 3.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

proposed include stress, bacteria, or inflammation. 5 – 8 In humans, Helicobacter -negative gastritis has been associated with inflammatory bowel disease. 9 , 10 Furthermore, in dogs, Helicobacter- negative lymphoplasmacytic gastritis has been proposed

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research