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exchange called extracellular vesicles. 37 These micron-sized spheres can be created and engineered to carry therapeutics across the blood-brain barrier, including antiviral nucleic acids against rabies. 38, 39 After proliferation is slowed, the virus

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

MSCs secreted paracrine factors and extracellular vesicles can greatly alter macrophage polarization. 23 Prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ), IL-1 receptor antagonist, IL-10, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), and C-C motif ligand 18, secreted factors from

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

alternative therapies for human and equine patients. Neutrophils might act as key components of airway dysfunction through the release of various mediators, including extracellular vesicles (EVs). These nanoscale membrane-derived particles are lipid bilayer

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

a decrease in HA content in extracellular vesicles released by synovial articular cells during natural equine osteoarthritis. Contrary to our results, serum hyaluronic acid was elevated in humans with hand osteoarthritis, but it is a useful

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

located within extracellular vesicles or in Ago protein complexes. 43 , 44 Additional studies are needed to determine whether circulating mir-382 influences renal injury in feline CKD and the mechanism by which this may occur. Predicted gene targets for

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

events were reported in 7 of the 10 (70%) cats. The second study used extracellular vesicles excreted from allogeneic adipose-derived MSCs administered once IV to treat postrenal AKI induced through urethral obstruction in 3 cats. 23 The cats were only

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

-derived products, such as extracellular vesicles (EVs), are another type of ACTP being investigated for clinical use. To understand the current status of MSCs and MSC product use in cats, a scoping review of the published literature to date was performed. This

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

-Y . TNF-α and INF-γ primed canine stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles alleviate experimental murine colitis . Sci Rep . 2020 ; 10 ( 1 ): 2115 . doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-58909-4 21. Gupta SK , Parlane N , Bridgeman B , et al . The

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

myxomatous mitral valve disease Researchers at Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine at Tufts University have discovered microRNA biomarkers in extracellular vesicles in dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease and congestive heart failure

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

. J Thorac Dis . 2020 ; 12 ( 5 ): 2759 – 2770 . 32642184 28. Luo P , Mao K , Xu J , Metabolic characteristics of large and small extracellular vesicles from pleural effusion reveal biomarker candidates for the diagnosis of tuberculosis

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association