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remaining 4 molecular types are of the C gattii species: VGI (AFLP4), VGII (AFLP6), VGIII (AFLP5), and VGIV (AFLP7), classified as C gattii serotypes B and C. Other hybrid strains have also been reported. 3 Differences in epidemiology, pathogenicity

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

reported here was to characterize the swine population shown by 4-H participants and to evaluate its potential importance to the epidemiology and control of PRRS. Materials and Methods Demographics of commercial and show swine populations in Minnesota

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

(HR, 7.2; 95% CI, 0.9 to 56.5; P = 0.06). This finding could be perceived as supporting a role of the dam in the epidemiology of FHV infection in cheetahs, but also highlights the difficulty in identifying dams that may shed FHV. Like domestic cats

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To establish and compare the precision of serum total protein (STP) measured by an optical refractometer to the precision of IgG concentrations measured using radial immunodiffusion (RID), the reference test for quantifying IgG in neonatal calves.

SAMPLE

6 sera with previously measured IgG concentration using RID from neonatal beef calves were selected from 3 stratum: low-serum IgG stratum between >5.0 and <15.0g/L(n = 4); moderate-serum IgG stratum between 35.0–45.0g/L(n = 1); high-serum IgG stratum between 60.0–70.0g/L(n = 1).

METHODS

STP was measured 13 times with an optical refractometer. IgG concentrations were measured 28 times with a commercial bovine IgG RID for each sera. The homogeneity of variance within the tests was evaluated with the Levene test (α = 0.10). Unrestricted random sampling bootstrapping (5,000 repetitions) was used to calculate the coefficient of variation (CV) for each serum and test. The homogeneity of variance between simulated test CVs by serum was evaluated (α = 0.10). Differences between simulated test CV by serum were assessed with the Kruskal-Wallis test (α = 0.05).

RESULTS

No difference was observed in the variance for STP between sera (P = .39). The average CV for STP was 4.2%, 10.1% for the low IgG stratum, and 15.5% for the moderate/high IgG stratum. Variance differed in serum IgG concentration (P < .0001). Serum with higher IgG concentrations had more variance. Simulated CV for STP and IgG had homogeneity of variance for only 1 sera (P = .31). STP had a smaller CV compared to IgG for every serum (P < .0001).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Estimating IgG concentration directly by RID or indirectly by STP lacks the precision that might affect diagnostic interpretation regarding a calf’s absorption of maternal antibodies.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To understand the epidemiology of animal bites and exposure, evaluate the animal exposure reporting system for surveillance of rabies postexposure prophylaxis (PEP), and identify opportunities to reduce PEP.

Design—Period prevalence survey.

Study Population—Pennsylvania residents in 1995.

Procedure—Data from animal bite reports from Pennsylvania county health offices were summarized for 1995. Animal bite incidences for the state, counties, various age groups, and various population densities were calculated. Animal species, treatment, location of wounds, and PEP recommendations were evaluated for exposures.

Results—More than 16,000 animal-related potential rabies exposures were reported from 65 of 67 counties in Pennsylvania. The highest incidence was in children less than 5 years old (324/100,000). Of the 75% of victims requiring wound treatment, 50% received antimicrobials, 29% received a tetanus toxoid, and 19% had wounds sutured, were admitted to hospitals, or were referred for plastic surgery. Although 75% of exposures were to dogs, victims exposed to cats were 6 times as likely to receive PEP (relative risk, 6.1; 95% confidence interval, 5.1 to 7.4). Thirty percent of 556 PEP were given for exposures to dogs, 44% for cats, 7% for raccoons, 4% for bats, 2.5% for squirrels, 2.1% for groundhogs, 2% for foxes, and 8% for exposures to other species. Fifty-nine percent of owned dogs were up-to-date on rabies vaccinations compared with 41% of owned cats.

Conclusion—Interventions, such as dog bite prevention education, vaccination of pets against rabies, appropriate use of PEP, and reduction of feral cat populations, should be instituted, enhanced, or better enforced in communities. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:190–194)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate risk of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection between birth and 9 months of age for dairy replacement heifers raised under typical dry-lot management conditions.

Design—Longitudinal observational study.

Animals—446 calves.

Procedure—Calves were randomly selected from 2 dairies that used killed and modified-live BVDV vaccines. Repeated serologic and BVDV polymerase chain reaction assays were used to estimate risk of BVDV infection in calves of various ages (1 to 60 days; 61 to 100 days; 101 days to 9 months) and to estimate overall infection rate by 9 months of age.

Results—Risk of BVDV infection increased with age (maximum risk, 150 to 260 days). Proportion of calves infected with BVDV by 9 months of age was higher for dairy A (0.665), compared with dairy B (0.357). Percentage infected with BVDV type I did not differ between dairy A (18.2%) and dairy B (15.2%), whereas percentage infected with BVDV type II for dairy A (50%) was twice that for dairy B (21%). Between 210 and 220 days of age, infection with BVDV regardless of type was > 1.3%/d on dairy A and 0.5%/d on dairy B.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Under drylot conditions, a considerable amount of BVDV infection may occur before 9 months of age. Risk of infection increases with age. Although dairies may appear to have similar management practices, there can be considerably different risks of BVDV infection among dairies. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;219:1426–1431)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

-control studies . Lyon, France : International Agency for Research on Cancer , 1980 ; 142 . 10. Fletcher RH Fletcher SW Wagner EH . In: Clinical epidemiology: the essentials . 3rd ed. Baltimore : Williams & Wilkins , 1996 ; 186 – 207 . 11

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

.001 Wellness plan in 2007          No Referent — Referent —  Yes 1.18 (1.17–1.18) < 0.001 1.33 (1.33–1.34) < 0.001 See Table 2 for key. Discussion In the present study, the epidemiology of

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association