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SUMMARY

To determine the effects of heat stress and drinking water treatments on physical characteristics of skeletal tissue, tibias of cockerels ranging in age from 4 to 11 weeks were tested for breaking strength. Birds were subjected to either a thermoneutral environment (21 ± 2 C) or a hot environment (37 ± 2 C) and supplied with either tap or carbonated drinking water. Breaking strength of tibias was reduced in the hot environment; however, consumption of carbonated drinking water in the hot environment resulted in bone strength comparable with that associated with thermoneutral environment (both types of water). Also, bones from birds of the carbonated water- 37 C treatment group had less phase breaks and tended to separate with a single break. Results indicate that hot environment and carbonated drinking water not only affect the previously reported morphologic and chemical characteristics of developing bone, but also their physical attributes.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

, the purpose of the study reported here was to evaluate SP-D concentrations in the serum and BALF of young healthy horses on pasture and in a typical barn environment. Materials and Methods Horses Twenty young healthy horses from a research

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

free-roaming cat population sizes, to the authors' knowledge, the different approaches have not been directly compared in urban and mixed environments in the United States. In addition to studying the size and distribution of free-roaming cat

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

congregation of inflammatory cells capable of releasing cytokines that contribute to inflammation and catabolism. 4 The in vitro effects of commonly used corticosteroids on equine articular tissues in inflammatory environments have been investigated. 5

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate effects of thermal environment on response to acute peripheral lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge exposure in neonatal pigs.

Animals

26 neonatal pigs.

Procedure

Pigs were assigned to the following treatment groups: 1 warm environment/LPS; 2 warm environment/saline solution; 3 cool environment/LPS; and 4 cool environment/saline solution. For each pig given LPS. 1 littermate of the same sex was given saline solution. Sows with baby pigs were housed in a warm (32 C) or cool (21 C) thermal environment. At 28 days of age, pigs were given 150 µg/kg of body weight of Escherichia coli LPS or saline solution intraperitoneally as a control. Rectal temperature and signs of sickness were monitored for 3 hours after LPS administration, when pigs were euthanatized and blood samples were collected to determine serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α and cortisol. To determine in vitro production of TNFα, alveolar macrophages were collected by tracheal lavage and incubated for 24 hours at 37 or 41 C, with or without LPS (10 µg/ml).

Results

Thermal environment had a significant (P = 0.0004) effect on rectal temperature; LPS administration induced a febrile response (P = 0.0007) only in pigs in the warm environment. All LPS-injected pigs developed signs of endotoxemia; serum TNFα and cortisol concentrations were significantly increased (TNFα, P = 0.003; cortisol, P = 0.0001); there was no significant in vivo thermal effect on serum TNFα and cortisol concentrations. LPS-stimulated alveolar macrophages produced significantly less (P = 0.0086) TNFα when incubated at 41 C.

Conclusions

Thermal environment can have a significant impact on the response of neonatal pigs exposed to bacterial endotoxins. (Am J Vet Res 1997; 58:364-369)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

During an investigation of poor growth performance, rate of weight gain and feed efficiency were studied in pigs with pneumonia. During the study, pigs either were housed in an improved environment or remained at their home farm. In both environments, rate of gain tended to decrease in association with increasing severity of pneumonia. When pigs with similar extent of lung lesions were compared, growth performance of pigs housed in the improved environment was better than that of pigs on the home farm. However, growth performance of pigs with pneumonia affecting > 20% of lung tissue was equally poor in either environment. When type of housing and extent of pneumonia were included in a model for analysis of variance, housing had a highly significant (P = 0.003) effect on rate of gain, and pneumonia had a nonsignificant effect.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

-PI3 vaccine during summer conditions (high ambient temperatures) with those of calves administered the same vaccine during moderate conditions. The hypothesis was that calves housed in a high–ambient temperature environment would have a decreased

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Forty-eight herds participating in the 1988/1989 Ohio National Animal Health Monitoring System dairy project were monitored for 1 year to determine the effects of environment and management on mortality in preweaned calves. Environmental factors were evaluated by veterinarians during monthly visits to the herds. Management procedures were measured through the use of a questionnaire administered near the end of the project. Mortality in preweaned calves was calculated for each herd by using data from project records on calf mortality and animal inventory, which were collected monthly by veterinarians. Relationships between the management/environment variables and calf mortality were examined by use of analysis of covariance. Herd size, days on a nipple feeder, navel disinfection, type of housing, and whether each calf observed with diarrhea was treated with antibiotics were the variables that had an impact on herd mortality. These variables explained approximately 39% of the variation in mortality among herds.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the possibility of swine becoming infected with Salmonella Typhimurium when housed for 2 to 6 hours in an environment contaminated with Salmonella, similar to a lairage situation prior to slaughter.

Animals—40 crossbred market pigs with an approximate body weight of 92 kg.

Procedure—Five trials were conducted (8 pigs/trial) in simulated lairage conditions. Superficial inguinal, ileocecal, and mandibular lymph nodes, cecal contents, distal portion of the ileum, and fecal samples were obtained from each pig after 2 (n = 10), 3 (10), and 6 (5) hours of exposure to an environment contaminated with feces defecated by 10 pigs intranasally inoculated with nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium (χ4232). In addition, 5 control pigs that were not exposed were also evaluated in the same manner.

Results—Feces deposited on the floor by intranasally inoculated swine were mixed with water to form slurry with a resulting load of approximately 103 colonyforming units of Salmonella Typhimurium/g of material. Eight of 10, 6 of 10, and 6 of 6 pigs exposed to the slurry for 2, 3, or 6 hours, respectively, had positive results for at least 1 sample when tested for the specific strain of Salmonella Typhimurium.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Pigs can become infected during routine resting or holding periods during marketing when exposed to relatively low amounts of Salmonella organisms in the preslaughter environment. Intervention at this step of the production process may have a major impact on the safety of pork products. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1194–1197)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether Salmonella spp could be isolated from the environment of free stall dairies in Wisconsin without any history of clinical salmonellosis and determine the serotype and antimicrobial susceptibility of any Salmonella isolates recovered from the environment.

Design—Cross-sectional study.

Study Population—20 free stall dairies with no history of clinical salmonellosis.

Procedures—Dairy owners completed a questionnaire regarding management and production practices. Multiple swab samples were obtained from throughout the free stall facilities and submitted for bacterial culture for Salmonella spp. Odds ratios were calculated to compare herd-level risk factors between dairies from which Salmonella organisms were isolated and herds from which Salmonella organisms were not isolated.

ResultsSalmonella organisms were isolated from 9 of the 20 (45%) dairies. Salmonella serotype Meleagridis was isolated from 4 dairies, S Meleagridis and S Kentucky were isolated from 2 dairies, S Meleagridis and S Cyprus were isolated from 1 dairy, S Cerro was isolated from 1 dairy, and S Corvallis was isolated from 1 dairy. All isolates were susceptible to all antimicrobial agents tested. None of the potential risk factors analyzed demonstrated a significant association with an increased likelihood of isolating Salmonella spp.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Environmental Salmonella contamination was demonstrated on free stall dairies with no history of clinical salmonellosis. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:574–577)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association