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were used. Prior to inclusion, horses underwent a lameness examination and body condition assessment. In addition, radiographic views of the carpal joints, range of motion (flexion) of the carpal joints, and evidence of joint effusion were assessed to

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

, body condition assessment, radiography of the carpal joints, range of motion (flexion) testing of the carpal joints, and examination for joint effusion; only horses without abnormal findings were permitted in the study. As described, 17 on day 0

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

tarsocrural joint is most commonly affected. 9 The routine diagnosis of osteochondrosis is based on findings on orthopedic examination and radiographic evaluation. 10 In clinically affected horses, signs of joint effusion or lameness usually prompt

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

other week from day 0 (baseline) throughout the study period. After lameness severity was evaluated, signs of joint pain were assessed by performance of carpal flexion tests, and severity of synovial effusion in the middle carpal joint was also evaluated

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

concussive and shear forces of the proximal sesamoid bones during exercise. 8 Early in the course of this disease, clinical signs, such as lameness, joint effusion, and response to flexion, are seldom obvious. 6,9–11 Acute lameness is often observed after

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

sprint at 11 m/s at the end of each exercise period. Details of exercise and clinical variables evaluated, such as lameness and joint effusion, have been documented in detail. 5 All 12 horses were given calcein green for labeling of active bone formation

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

-impregnated collagen sponge were warm and had mild amounts of periarticular edema and effusion. Despite apparent mild effusion, arthrocentesis of joints implanted with the gentamicin-impregnated collagen sponge consistently yielded fluid less readily than did control

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

lameness (determined from detailed records that were collected as part of standard operating procedures of the University of Guelph) during the preceding 4-week period and had no detectable signs of trauma (eg, cuts, scrapes, heat, or effusion) in proximity

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

concentrations remained between 10 and 20 μg/mL, but the concentration in 1 horse that developed joint effusion (solid line) was substantially higher than in the others (dashed lines) during and after stage 6, when exercise intensity was intense

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

stifle joint effusion (edges of the patellar tendon were palpably indistinct), fibrotic thickening on the medial aspect (medial buttress) of the stifle joint, and a positive cranial drawer or tibial compression test result 17 as determined by a

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research